Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: July 2016

This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario and its regions.

Overview

Labour Force Trends – Ontario employment declined notably in July

  • Employment in Ontario decreased by 36,100 in July, following a decline of 4,200 in June
  • Both full-time employment (-18,900) and part-time employment (-17,100) fell over the month
  • The unemployment rate remained stable at 6.4% from the previous month, due to a drop in the labour force

Employment in Ontario fell by 36,100 (-0.5%) in July, the third monthly decline over the past four months, with the losses spread out over both full-time employment (-18,900) and part-time employment (-17,100). The provincial unemployment rate remained steady at 6.4% from June, despite a small increase in unemployment (+2,500) and a decrease in the labour force (-33,400). The fall in the labour force contributed to the province's participation rate dropping by 0.4 percentage points to 64.6%, the lowest in Ontario since September 1977.

In Canada, employment decreased by 31,200 in July, with an increase in part-time work (+40,200) negated by a large decline in full-time work (-71,400). The latest data on manufacturing sales and building permits also showed weaknesses nationally. The loss in employment ran contrary to expectations by economists, who had anticipated Canada's economy would add about 10,000 in employment over the month.Footnote1 A large portion of the employment gains in public administration in May, due partly to the undertaking of the federal census, were lost in July. The national unemployment rate inched up slightly to 6.9%.

In the United States, total non-farm payroll employment increased by 255,000 in July, continuing the strong recovery in June. This increase surpassed the surveyed expectations of economists, who had predicted a gain of 182,000 in employment.Footnote2 The federal unemployment rate remained steady at 4.9%. Average hourly earnings increased by 2.6% from July 2015 to July 2016, another indication of a positive labour market in the U.S. However, the participation rate has hovered at historically low levels, at 62.8% in July. Despite this, the job report has renewed optimism about the American labour market, and the U.S. Federal Reserve may raise its benchmark interest rate as early as September.Footnote3

Between July 2015 and July 2016, employment in Ontario increased by 23,900, with gains in both full-time and part-time employment. The unemployment rate inched down by 0.1 percentage point, as unemployment decreased by 2,800. However, the participation rate dropped by 0.6 percentage points, as the increase in labour force (+0.3%) did not keep up with the increase in population (+1.2%).

The Ontario unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 increased by 0.6 percentage points to 14.2% from June to July, with unemployment increasing by 6,000. Both the participation rate and the employment rate fell over the month. The provincial youth unemployment rate was higher than the national youth unemployment rate of 13.3% in July. However, Ontario's youth unemployment rate was 0.6 percentage points lower than it was 12 months ago.

During the summer months, Statistics Canada collects labour market data on youths aged 15 to 24 who were full-time students in March and plan to return to school full-time in the fall. Among these students, employment fell by 9,100 (-1.8%) from 12 months ago to 508,500 in July. However, the unemployment rate among these students fell by 2.0 percentage points to 16.7% as unemployment fell sharply, although the participation rate also fell slightly over the year. The provincial full-time student unemployment rate was similar to the national figure of 16.4%.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted monthly data July 2016 June 2016 July 2015 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,531.4 11,515.2 11,390.4 16.2 0.1 141.0 1.2
Labour force ('000) 7,447.0 7,480.4 7,425.8 -33.4 -0.4 21.2 0.3
Employment ('000) 6,966.6 7,002.7 6,942.7 -36.1 -0.5 23.9 0.3
Full-time ('000) 5,663.6 5,682.5 5,645.4 -18.9 -0.3 18.2 0.3
Part-time ('000) 1,303.1 1,320.2 1,297.2 -17.1 -1.3 5.9 0.5
Unemployment ('000) 480.3 477.8 483.1 2.5 0.5 -2.8 -0.6
Unemployment rate (%) 6.4 6.4 6.5 0.0 - -0.1 -
Participation rate (%) 64.6 65.0 65.2 -0.4 - -0.6 -
Employment rate (%) 60.4 60.8 61.0 -0.4 - -0.6 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Monthly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Unemployment rate (%) Employment ('000)
July 2014 7.6 6,876.4
August 2014 7.3 6,876.0
September 2014 7.1 6,888.6
October 2014 6.7 6,932.4
November 2014 7.0 6,898.2
December 2014 7.0 6,881.6
January 2015 6.8 6,885.7
February 2015 6.9 6,900.6
March 2015 6.9 6,903.0
April 2015 6.8 6,889.6
May 2015 6.5 6,928.1
June 2015 6.5 6,940.1
July 2015 6.5 6,942.7
August 2015 6.8 6,939.9
September 2015 6.9 6,911.2
October 2015 6.8 6,941.6
November 2015 6.9 6,933.1
December 2015 6.7 6,966.1
January 2016 6.7 6,985.9
February 2016 6.8 6,974.7
March 2016 6.8 6,988.6
April 2016 7.0 6,985.3
May 2016 6.6 7,006.9
June 2016 6.4 7,002.7
July 2016 6.4 6,966.6

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Ontario Monthly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted
data
July 2016
%
June 2016
%
July 2015
%
Monthly variation
(% points)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Total 6.4 6.4 6.5 0.0 -0.1
25 years and over 5.1 5.2 5.1 -0.1 0.0
Men - 25 years and over 5.2 5.2 5.1 0.0 0.1
Women - 25 years and over 5.1 5.2 5.0 -0.1 0.1
15 to 24 years 14.2 13.6 14.8 0.6 -0.6
Men - 15 to 24 years 16.1 16.7 16.4 -0.6 -0.3
Women - 15 to 24 years 12.3 10.4 13.1 1.9 -0.8

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Employment by Industry

Employment growth in the goods-producing sector driven by gains in manufacturing

Employment in Ontario's goods-producing sector expanded by 13,800 in July, after a decrease of 18,600 in June. Month-over-month gains were recorded in manufacturing (+13,000), utilities (+3,100), and agriculture (+1,300), while losses were recorded in construction (-3,100) and forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-400).

Numerous factory expansions and announcements of funding for new projects supported employment growth in manufacturing in July, although employment levels in the industry have fluctuated through 2016. A number of manufacturing indicators, such as provincial manufacturing sales and the RBC Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI), have fallen slightly in recent months. Manufacturing sales have either remained flat or declined for four consecutive months, while lower client demand has resulted in Ontario's manufacturers reporting a slow pace of production growth for 2016 so far. Nevertheless, the PMI remained in expansionary territory for Ontario. Some expansions announced by manufacturers across Ontario in July included Startech.com adding floor space and looking to add 200 employees in London,Footnote4 and record production plant Precision Record Pressing opening in Burlington.Footnote5 Manufacturers also secured a number of new contracts and grants, including BWXT Canada Ltd. in Cambridge,Footnote6 Ontario Northland in North Bay,Footnote7 Strathcona Energy Group Inc. in Belleville,Footnote8 and Cimpress N.V in Tecumseh.Footnote9 Bioindustrial Innovation Canada (BIC) also received a $12M investment from the Government of Canada to support the clean technologies industrial sector in Sarnia-Lambton, creating an estimated 478 jobs.Footnote10

Employment in construction declined in July for the fourth time in five months. However, a 3.4% year-over-year increase in building permit values in May,Footnote11 and higher housing starts, up by 52.2% in June from 12 months agoFootnote12 should boost this sector going forward. In addition, there were a number of funding announcements for new infrastructure projects across the province in July, including $37M in contracts for northeastern Ontario roadwork;Footnote13 $20M to build electric vehicle charging stations at 250 locations across Ontario;Footnote14 $27.6M for safety-related upgrades across Canada, including 7 northern Ontario community airports;Footnote15 and $34.4M for rail infrastructure improvements in the Windsor-Quebec City rail corridor.Footnote16 These trends suggest construction employment may grow as projects continue to get underway.

Over the past 12 months, employment in the goods-producing sector grew by 9,300, as gains were registered in manufacturing (+9,200), construction (+6,800), agriculture (+5,700), and utilities (+500). Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas was the only goods-producing industry to record a loss (-12,800) over the year.

Services-producing sector employment falls due to weakening in the educational services industry

Ontario's services-producing sector recorded a decline of 49,900 in July, the largest loss in the sector since November 2008. This was driven mainly by losses in the educational services industry, which declined by 37,800, as declining enrollments at secondaryFootnote17 and post-secondaryFootnote18 schools have led to the announcement of multiple school closures over the last six months across the province. Footnote19, Footnote20, Footnote21, Footnote22, Footnote23, Footnote24, Footnote25, Footnote26

Other notable employment losses in the sector included public administration (-8,900), which partly reflects the conclusion of data collection for Statistics Canada's 2016 census.Footnote27,Footnote28 The finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing industry also recorded a loss (-7,600), with the industry witnessing a number of branch closures and layoff announcements from banks over the past few months.Footnote29,Footnote30,Footnote31

The business, building and other support services industry recorded the largest gain (+6,200) in the sector, supported by expansions at a number of call centres across the province.Footnote32,Footnote33 The wholesale and retail trade industry expanded as well (+4,100), with several retail openings announced in July, including Indochino in Toronto,Footnote34 a new Sobey's in London,Footnote35 and a new Lowe's in Thunder Bay.Footnote36 However, employment growth was tempered by the closure of 2 Taschen! stores in Toronto, while Ben Moss filed for bankruptcy protection in July, which will impact 19 stores across Ontario over the coming months.Footnote37,Footnote38

Over the past 12 months, employment in the services-producing sector grew by 14,700. The health care and social assistance (+32,400), information, culture, and recreation (+13,300), and accommodation and food services (+12,700) industries led the province in growth, but employment gains in the sector were moderated by declines in educational services (-51,200), finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing (-3,100), and wholesale and retail trade (-2,500).

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) July 2016 June 2016 July 2015 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 6,966.6 7,002.7 6,942.7 -36.1 -0.5 23.9 0.3
Goods-producing sector 1,421.4 1,407.6 1,412.1 13.8 1.0 9.3 0.7
Agriculture 79.6 78.3 73.9 1.3 1.7 5.7 7.7
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying,
oil and gas
34.2 34.6 47.0 -0.4 -1.2 -12.8 -27.2
Utilities 50.7 47.6 50.2 3.1 6.5 0.5 1.0
Construction 499.6 502.7 492.8 -3.1 -0.6 6.8 1.4
Manufacturing 757.4 744.4 748.2 13.0 1.7 9.2 1.2
Services-producing sector 5,545.2 5,595.1 5,530.5 -49.9 -0.9 14.7 0.3
Trade 1,041.8 1,037.7 1,044.3 4.1 0.4 -2.5 -0.2
Transportation and warehousing 321.7 323.6 321.2 -1.9 -0.6 0.5 0.2
Finance, insurance, real estate
and leasing
549.8 557.4 552.9 -7.6 -1.4 -3.1 -0.6
Professional, scientific
and technical services
597.0 601.1 590.4 -4.1 -0.7 6.6 1.1
Business, building
and other support services
329.3 323.1 327.5 6.2 1.9 1.8 0.5
Educational services 467.2 505.0 518.4 -37.8 -7.5 -51.2 -9.9
Health care and social assistance 840.8 836.8 808.4 4.0 0.5 32.4 4.0
Information, culture and recreation 323.9 325.5 310.6 -1.6 -0.5 13.3 4.3
Accommodation and food services 455.6 454.5 442.9 1.1 0.2 12.7 2.9
Other services 275.3 278.5 274.8 -3.2 -1.1 0.5 0.2
Public administration 343.0 351.9 339.2 -8.9 -2.5 3.8 1.1

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional Analysis

Toronto remained the engine of growth for Ontario

The Toronto economic region led employment growth in Ontario with a gain of 56,400 between July 2015 and July 2016 (measured on a year-over-year seasonally unadjusted basis). Employment rose year-over-year for the fourth month in a row in the region. The Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) remains one of Canada's most robust housing markets. Total housing starts were up by 1.3% in the CMA over the first six months of 2016 compared with the same period last year,Footnote39 with the construction of new condominium buildings in the downtown core the main driver of growth.Footnote40 Although there is some concern about the volume of condominium projects in Toronto, about 94 per cent of all units that were under construction or completed were off the market by the end of 2015.Footnote41

Outside of the housing market, new infrastructure developments took shape over the course of July. The Government of Ontario will spend $41M to repair and update schools in York Region, with 50 projects underway.Footnote42 The region also welcomed two large investment announcements that will help support scientific research and jobs. York University and partners, Southlake Regional Health Centre, and the University Health Network jointly received $34.5M towards the development of medical technologies.Footnote43 Meanwhile, along with funding from the provincial and federal governments, the University of Toronto will invest a total of $189.8M to enhance research labs across its facilities.Footnote44

Employment grew in the Kingston–Pembroke economic region by 12,800 over the past year. Employment has steadily picked up in the region throughout the first seven months of 2016. The unemployment rate fell to 5.7%, its lowest point since December 2015. Along with improved labour market conditions, there were a few positive announcements that will support jobs in the region over the short term. Pillar5 Pharma Inc. will invest $4M at its Arnprior manufacturing plant, creating 50 jobs that will start in January 2017.Footnote45The Government of Canada announced that it would provide $11.6M towards the construction of a water treatment plant at Slate Falls First Nation.Footnote46 Further, the Government of Canada awarded Pacific Safety Products Inc. of Arnprior a $33M contract to supply equipment for the Canadian Armed Forces.Footnote47 The company expects to deliver the initial order over the next 24 months.

There was a fair bit of activity in some of the key industries in Windsor–Sarnia, driving the region's employment up by 1,200. To help support Sarnia's sustainable chemical base, the Government of Canada announced that it would invest $12M in Bioindustrial Innovation Canada, which will lead to 478 full-time equivalent jobs.Footnote48 On top of this, BIOX Corporation stated that it would slowly restart an idled biodiesel plant, expected to create between 15 to 20 local jobs.Footnote49 The agriculture and agri-food industry also got a boost with some new developments. Union Gas Limited started construction on a pipeline expansion that will increase natural gas delivery to local agribusinesses.Footnote50 The project is valued at $12.3M. Later in July, Caesars Windsor announced that it would work with a farm in Essex County to source local produce for its restaurants.Footnote51 And with a healthy crop of homegrown vegetables this season, Bonduelle Canada Inc. would like to add 80 to 100 seasonal workers to its food processing plant in Tecumseh.Footnote52 Lastly, one of Windsor's oldest employers extended its lifeline by nearly 50 years.Footnote53 K+S Windsor Salt Ltd. stated that it would embark on a five-year $60M plan to upgrade and extend salt mine operations at its Ojibway site until about 2063.

Employment rose in both the Northeast and Northwest economic regions over the past year. While lower base metal prices have put the brakes on some northern Ontario mining projects, there was a positive turn in the local industry in July. Goldcorp Porcupine Gold Mines announced that it would extend the life of its Dome Mine in Timmins, which was set to close later this year.Footnote54 The decision comes as gold prices rally because of greater uncertainty in the world markets post-Brexit. There was also a major announcement from a long-standing North Bay manufacturer. Ontario Northland received a four-year $20M contract to refurbish Rocky Mountaineer passenger rail cars for CANARAIL.Footnote55 This will lead to 50 immediate jobs, with another 30 expected throughout the project.

Elsewhere in the province, employment rose in the Ottawa economic region between July 2015 and July 2016. All of the gains were in full-time positions. PiiComm Inc. opened its third office in the Ottawa area in July, which will allow the mobility solutions provider to expand its workforce by about 40 per cent.Footnote56

Labour market conditions were weakest in central Ontario in July

Employment fell or was relatively unchanged in five economic regions between July 2015 and July 2016. Labour market conditions remained flat in the London and Muskoka–Kawarthas economic regions while Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, and Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie took noticeable dips.

Employment dropped by 15,200 in the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula economic region since July 2015. At the same time, the regional unemployment rate jumped 0.5 percentage points to 6.4%. Despite these softer results, others indicators point to healthier economic activity in the region. Building permits and housing starts are performing wellFootnote57 and several big manufacturing-related announcements came out of the area in July. Precision Record Pressing Inc. will open a manufacturing plant in Burlington in August that will employ 200 workers,Footnote58 while Ferrero Canada Ltd. will invest $36.1M in its Brantford plant to expand its product line, which will create 55 jobs.Footnote59 To help build manufacturing capacity, McMaster University received an $11.96M investment from the Government of Canada for a biomedical engineering and advanced manufacturing centre, which will lead to 74 jobs.Footnote60

Employment in the Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie region also stalled in July. Both the regional participation and employment rates declined over the 12-month period. One of Cambridge's largest employers made headlines this summer. BWXT Canada Ltd. recently announced that it would lay off 24 workers because of weaker revenue from coal-related goods and delayed oil sands projects.Footnote61 However, the company then followed with a positive development later on, as it signed a $130M contract with Bruce Power to supply steam generators for the Tiverton nuclear generating plant.Footnote62 This project will sustain more than 100 jobs in the region over the next few years.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
3-month moving averages
seasonally unadjusted data
Employment Unemployment rate
July 2016
('000)
July 2015
('000)
Yearly variation
(%)
July 2016
(%)
July 2015
(%)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Ontario 7,090.8 7,032.3 0.8 6.5 6.8 -0.3
Economic regions
Ottawa 701.1 695.4 0.8 6.7 6.8 -0.1
Kingston--Pembroke 218.5 205.7 6.2 5.7 7.3 -1.6
Muskoka--Kawarthas 165.3 166.0 -0.4 7.7 7.2 0.5
Toronto 3,422.6 3,366.2 1.7 6.8 7.4 -0.6
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barrie 712.3 716.6 -0.6 5.5 5.1 0.4
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 721.7 736.9 -2.1 6.4 5.9 0.5
London 339.8 339.6 0.1 6.4 5.3 1.1
Windsor--Sarnia 307.8 304.1 1.2 6.6 8.0 -1.4
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 142.7 149.6 -4.6 4.2 5.4 -1.2
Northeast 258.2 253.6 1.8 6.9 7.7 -0.8
Northwest 100.8 98.5 2.3 6.7 6.2 0.5

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Analysis Directorate, Service Canada, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

CBC News Staff. (2016, August 5). Canada sheds 31,200 jobs in July, unemployment rate rises to 6.9%. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/jobs-canada-july-1.3708611

Return to footnote 1

Footnote 2

Gillespie, P. (2016, August 5). Strong: U.S. economy adds 255,000 jobs in July. CNNMoney. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2016/08/05/news/economy/us-economy-july-jobs-report/index.html

Return to footnote 2

Footnote 3

Harrison, D. (2016, August 5). WSJ Analysis: Jobs Report Keeps Fed on Track for Rate Increase. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.wsj.com/articles/wsj-analysis-jobs-report-keep-fed-on-track-for-rate-increase-1470401378

Return to footnote 3

Footnote 4

DeBono, N. (2016, July 4). London's Startech.com adding floor space, jobs as sales rise in markets from Europe to Japan. The London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/07/04/londons-startechcom-adding-floor-space-jobsas- sales-rise-in-markets-from-europe-to-japan

Return to footnote 4

Footnote 5

Carter, A. (2016, July 11). New Ontario vinyl plant aims to be 2nd largest in North America. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/news/burlington-record-plant-1.3673610

Return to footnote 5

Footnote 6

CBC News Staff. (2016, July 12). BWXT Canada signs $130M steam generator contract with Bruce Power. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/bwxt-canada-bruce-power-steam-generator-1.3675231

Return to footnote 6

Footnote 7

North Bay Nugget Staff. (2016, July 14). ONR lands $20-million contract; up to 80 new jobs. North Bay Nugget. Retrieved from: http://www.nugget.ca/2016/07/14/onr-lands-20-million-contract-up-to-80-new-jobs

Return to footnote 7

Footnote 8

Government of Canada, Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev Ontario). (2016, July 27). FedDev Ontario Supports Expansion Activities for Belleville Clean Technology Manufacturer. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1104789

Return to footnote 8

Footnote 9

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2016, July 20). Ontario Partners with Cimpress to Create Manufacturing Jobs in Windsor. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2016/07/ontario-partners-withcimpress- to-create-manufacturing-jobs-in-windsor.html

Return to footnote 9

Footnote 10

Government of Canada, Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev Ontario). (2016, July 25). Government of Canada Invests $12M to Support Bio-Based Innovation in Sarnia. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/articleen. do?mthd=advSrch&crtr.mnthndVl=&crtr.mnthStrtVl=&crtr.page=1&nid=1103989&crtr.yrndVl=&crtr.kw=sarnia&crtr.yrSt rtVl=&crtr.dyStrtVl=&crtr.dyndVl=

Return to footnote 10

Footnote 11

Statistics Canada. (2016, August 5). CANSIM Table 026-0003, Building permits, values by activity sector, monthly (dollars x 1,000). Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0260003&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=- 1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

Return to footnote 11

Footnote 12

Statistics Canada. (2016, August 5).CANSIM Table 027-0054, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, all areas, Canada and provinces, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, monthly (units x 1,000). Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0270054&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=- 1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

Return to footnote 12

Footnote 13

Northern Ontario Business Staff. (2016, June 29). Province awards $37 million in road contracts. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from: http://www.northernontariobusiness.com/Industry-News/construction/2016/06/Province-awards- $37-million-in-road-contracts.aspx

Return to footnote 13

Footnote 14

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Transportation. (2016, July 13). Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Coming Soon Province Unveils Over 250 Convenient Charging Locations. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2016/07/electric-vehicle-charging-stations-coming-soon.html

Return to footnote 14

Footnote 15

Government of Canada, Transport Canada. (2016, July 20). Government of Canada Investing in Safety at Regional Airports. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=2&nid=1101649

Return to footnote 15

Footnote 16

Government of Canada, Transport Canada. (2016, July 22). The Government of Canada and VIA Rail Canada announce funding for infrastructure to improve quality of service for travellers. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/articleen. do?mthd=tp&crtr.page=4&nid=1103299&crtr.tp1D=1

Return to footnote 16

Footnote 17

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Education. (2016, February 16). Education Facts, 2014-2015. Retrieved from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/educationfacts.html

Return to footnote 17

Footnote 18

Brown, L. (2014, September 22). Ontario university enrolment down for first time in 15 years. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2014/09/22/ontario_university_enrolment_down_for_first_time_in_15_y ears.html

Return to footnote 18

Footnote 19

Giorno, F. (2016, March 24). Haileybury Public School to close permanently June 30, 2016. Timmins Today. Retrieved from: https://www.timminstoday.com/local-news/haileybury-public-school-to-close-permanently-june-30-2016-269995

Return to footnote 19

Footnote 20

Kelly, B. (2016, June 12). Algoma U cuts 9 jobs. Sault Star. Retrieved from: http://www.saultstar.com/2016/06/12/algomau- cuts-9-jobs

Return to footnote 20

Footnote 21

Rushowy, K. (2016, March 9). TDSB approves cutting teacher jobs as enrolment dips. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2016/03/09/tdsb-approves-cutting-teacher-jobs-as-enrolment-dips.html

Return to footnote 21

Footnote 22

Leitner, R. (2016, April 22). Declining school enrolment in Hamilton to cost another 70 teacher jobs. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6510620-declining-school-enrolment-in-hamilton-to-costanother- 70-teacher-jobs/

Return to footnote 22

Footnote 23

Kovach, J. (2016, April 14). Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board issues layoff notices for 109 public high school teachers in Peterborough area over declining enrolment. The Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2016/04/14/kawartha-pine-ridge-district-school-board-issues-layoff-noticessfor- 109-public-high-school-teachers-in-peterborough-area-over-declining-enrolment

Return to footnote 23

Footnote 24

Owen Sound Sun Times Staff. (2016, May 1). Layoff notices for Bluewater ed assistants. Owen Sound Sun Times. Retrieved from: http://www.owensoundsuntimes.com/2016/05/01/layoff-notices-for-bluewater-ed-assistants

Return to footnote 24

Footnote 25

Thomson, R. (2016, April 6). Catholic board votes to close three schools. AM800. Retrieved from: http://www.am800cklw.com/News/Headlines/Catholic-board-votes-to-close-three-schools

Return to footnote 25

Footnote 26

Waddell, D. (2016, June 20). Catholic school board issues 70 teacher layoff notices. Windsor Star. Retrieved from: http://windsorstar.com/news/local-news/catholic-school-board-issues-70-teacher-layoff-notices

Return to footnote 26

Footnote 27

Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2016, April 29). Crew Leader - Census jobs across Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.census.gc.ca/ccr16d/ccr16d-03/ccr16d-03_002a-eng.html

Return to footnote 27

Footnote 28

Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2016, April 29). Enumerator - Census jobs across Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.census.gc.ca/ccr16d/ccr16d-03/ccr16d-03_002a-eng.html

Return to footnote 28

Footnote 29

Posadzki, A. (2016, May 26). BMO to lay off 1,850, but raises dividend. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2016/05/25/bmos-profit-falls-but-dividend-raised.html

Return to footnote 29

Footnote 30

Aylmer Express Staff. (2016, May 23). Belmont Scotiabank closing. Aylmer Express. Retrieved from:http://aylmerexpress.com/2016/05/belmont-scotiabank-closing/

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Footnote 31

Critchley, B. (2016, June 21). Bank of Montreal is cutting brokers in dribs and drabs. The National Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/investing/investing-pro/bank-of-montreal-is-cutting-brokers-in-dribs-and-drabs

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Footnote 32

Fraser, D. (2016, June 14). Sitel in hiring mode, to add 180 jobs. St. Catharines Standard. Retrieved from: http://www.niagarafallsreview.ca/2016/06/14/sitel-in-hiring-mode-to-add-180-jobs

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Footnote 33

Minacs Staff. (2016, May 27). Minacs to Add 685 Jobs Across Ontario in Next Five Months. Minacs. Retrieved from: http://www.minacs.com/about/company/newsroom/minacs-to-add-685-jobs-across-ontario-in-next-fivemonths# at_pco=smlwn-1.0&at_si=574de03fd1516815&at_ab=per-2&at_pos=0&at_tot=1

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Footnote 34

Market Wired Staff. (2016, July 11). INDOCHINO Continues to Suit Up Canada. Market Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/indochino-continues-to-suit-up-canada-2141231.htm

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Footnote 35

CTV London Staff. (2016, July 5). New Sobeys store to hold job fair. CTV London. Retrieved from: http://london.ctvnews.ca/new-sobeys-store-to-hold-job-fair-1.2974305

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Footnote 36

Thunder Bay NewsWatch Staff. (2016, July 5). Local Lowe's store set for August grand opening. Thunder Bay NewsWatch. Retrieved from: http://www.tbnewswatch.com/news/391205/Local_Lowe¿s_store_set_for_August_grand_opening

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Footnote 37

Retail Insider Staff. (2016, July 19). Taschen! Shutters Stores Amid Bankruptcy Proceedings. Retail Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/7/taschen

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Footnote 38

CBC News Staff. (2016, July 31). Winnipeg-based jewelry chain Ben Moss closing doors across the country. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/winnipeg-based-jewelry-chain-ben-moss-closes- 1.3702689?cmp=rss

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Footnote 39

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2016, July). Preliminary Housing Start Data - Table 2. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved from: https://www03.cmhcschl. gc.ca/catalog/productDetail.cfm?cat=58&itm=1&lang=en&fr=1470329514937

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Footnote 40

Wong, C. (2016, July 11). Toronto condos boost national pace of housing construction: CMHC. Metro News. Retrieved from: http://www.metronews.ca/news/canada/2016/07/11/cmhc-says-the-annual-pace-of-housing-starts-in-canada-pickedup- in-june.html

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Footnote 41

The Canadian Press. (2016, July 19). Toronto's condo builders take conservative path to more supply: CMHC. Metro News. Retrieved from: http://www.metronews.ca/news/canada/2016/07/19/toronto-condo-builders-have-taken-conservative-path-to-adding-supply-cmhc.html

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Footnote 42

Greenberg, C. (2016, July 5). Province says $41M will be used to repair York Region schools. Retrieved from: CTV News. Retrieved from: http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/province-says-41m-will-be-used-to-repair-york-region-schools-1.2974096

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Footnote 43

Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario. (2016, July 21). FedDev Ontario Invests in Healthcare Innovation. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1102419

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Footnote 44

Campion-Smith, B. (2016, July 28). U of T to get $98 million for lab upgrades. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/07/28/u-of-t-to-get-98-million-for-lab-upgrades.html

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Footnote 45

Ottawa Valley Business Group. (2016, July 5). Pillar5 Pharma Adding Jobs. Ottawa Valley Business Group. Retrieved from: http://www.ovbusiness.com/userfiles/file/2016%20Issues/Ottawa%20Valley%20Businses%20-%20July%205,%202016.pdf

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Footnote 46

CNW. (2016, July 11). Government of Canada and Slate Falls Nation Partner to Provide Clean, Safe Drinking Water. CNW Group Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/government-of-canada-and-slate-falls-nation-partnerto- provide-clean-safe-drinking-water-586314571.html

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Footnote 47

Arnprior Today. (2016, July 5). Pacific Safety Products Nets 33 Million Dollar Contract. Arnpriortoday.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.arnpriortoday.ca/default.asp?pid=9139179&wireid=02575_AR-VestDeal1web_083457

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Footnote 48

Baynton, R. (2016, July 28). FedEv Investment Could Mean More Bio-Based Industries For Sarnia–Lambton. BlackburnNews.com. Retrieved from: http://blackburnnews.com/agrimedia/agrimedia-news/2016/07/28/feddev-investment-mean-bio-based-industries-sarnia-lambton/

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Footnote 49

Michaels, L. (2016, June 24). Expansion Plans At Newly Sold Methes Energies. BlackburnNews.com. Retrieved from: https://blackburnnews.com/sarnia/sarnia-news/2016/06/24/expansion-plans-newly-sold-methes-energies/

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Footnote 50

Vlasveld, M. (2016, July 6). New Pipeline Big For Local Agribusiness. BlackburnNews.com. Retrieved from: https://blackburnnews.com/windsor/windsor-news/2016/07/06/new-pipeline-big-local-agribusiness/

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Footnote 51

Thorne, L. (2016, July 27). Lee & Maria's Farm Partners With Caesars Windsor. windsoriteDOTca. Retrieved from: http://windsorite.ca/2016/07/lee-marias-farm-partners-with-caesars-windsor/

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Footnote 52

Medeiros, T. (2016, July 13). Bonduelle In Tecumseh Is Hiring. AM800 CKLW. Retrieved from: http://www.am800cklw.com/News/Headlines/Bonduelle-In-Tecumseh-Is-Hiring

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Footnote 53

Wilhelm, T. (2016, July 25). Ojibway salt mine's $60M expansion 'good news for Windsor'. Windsor Star. Retrieved from: http://windsorstar.com/news/local-news/ojibway-salt-mine-to-undergo-60-million-expansion

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Footnote 54

Gillis, L. (2016, July 20). Dome Mine to continue to the end of 2016 and beyond. Timmins Press. Retrieved from: http://www.timminspress.com/2016/07/20/dome-mine-to-continue-to-the-end-of-2016-and-beyond

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Footnote 55

Dawson, C. (2016, July 15). Union optimistic after 50 ONR jobs announced. Bay Today. Retrieved from: https://www.baytoday.ca/local-news/union-optimistic-after-50-onr-jobs-announced-337876

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Footnote 56

OBJ Staff. (2016, July 12). PiiComm opens third office in Ottawa region. Ottawa Business Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.obj.ca/Technology/2016-07-12/article-4585578/PiiComm-opens-third-office-in-Ottawa-region/1

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Footnote 57

Zamperin, R. (2016, July 11). Busy first half of 2016 for local homebuilders. AM900 CHML. Retrieved from: http://www.900chml.com/2016/07/11/77516/

Hamilton Spectator. (2016, July 26). Building permit activity in Hamilton is still hot. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6784461-building-permit-activity-in-hamilton-is-still-hot/

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Footnote 58

Carter, A. (2016, July 11). New Ontario vinyl plant aims to be 2nd largest in North America. CBC. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/news/burlington-record-plant-1.3673610

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Footnote 59

Bell, V. (2016, July 28). Ferrero expands its product lines. Brantford Expositor. Retrieved from: http://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/2016/07/28/ferrero-expands-its-product-lines

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Footnote 60

Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario. (2016, July 27). FedEv Ontario Invests in Biomedical Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Centre. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/articleen. do?nid=1104469

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Footnote 61

CTV Kitchener. (2016, June 29). Babcock and Wilcox laying off 24 workers in Cambridge. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/babcock-and-wilcox-laying-off-24-workers-in-cambridge-1.2967199

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Footnote 62

CBC News. (2016, July 12). BWXT Canada signs $130M steam generator contract with Bruce Power. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/bwxt-canada-bruce-power-steam-generator-1.3675231

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