Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: August 2016

This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula, Kingston-Pembroke, Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie, London, Muskoka-Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford¿Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor-Sarnia.


Labour Force Trends – Ontario employment increased in August, as did unemployment

  • Ontario employment figures increased by 10,500 in August, following a large decline of 36,100 in July
  • Full-time employment (+8,600) and part-time employment (+1,700) both improved over the month
  • The unemployment rate rose to 6.7%, up 0.3 percentage points from the previous month, due to an increase of 20,000 in unemployment

Employment figures in Ontario climbed by 10,500 (+0.2%) in August, the first monthly increase in the past three months, with increases in both full-time employment (+8,600) and part-time employment (+1,700). However, the provincial unemployment rate rose to 6.7%, up 0.3 percentage points from July, as unemployment increased by 20,000 over the month. The labour force expanded by 30,400, as the participation rate inched up by 0.2 percentage points to 64.8%.

In Canada, employment increased by 26,200 (+0.1%) in August, as growth in full-time work (+52,200) offset a decrease in part-time work (-26,000). Employment gains were better than economists' expectations, who had anticipated Canada's labour market would add about 16,000 in employment over the month,Footnote1with gains strongest in public administration and trade. The national unemployment rate inched up slightly to 7.0%.

In the United States, total non-farm payroll employment increased by 151,000 in August, a modest employment gain south of the border, after its strong recovery over June and July. The federal unemployment rate remained steady at 4.9%. Average hourly earnings increased by 2.4% from August 2015 to August 2016, another indication of a positive labour market in the U.S. that may have reached full employment, although the participation rate has hovered at historically low levels, at 62.8% in August. Despite this, the job report has sustained optimism about the American labour market, and the U.S. Federal Reserve may raise its benchmark interest rate as early as September.Footnote2

Between August 2015 and August 2016, employment in Ontario increased by 37,200 (+0.5%) year-over-year, with part-time employment observing most of the gains. The unemployment rate inched down by 0.1 percentage point, due to a decrease of 8,200 (-1.6%) in unemployment. However, the participation rate dropped by 0.5 percentage points, as the growth in population (+1.3%) outpaced the increase in labour force (+0.4%).

The unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 in Ontario rose by 0.4 percentage points to 14.6% in August, as unemployment figures climbed up by 4,900 (+3.2%). However, the participation and employment rates also went up over the month, due to growths in youth labour force and employment figures. The provincial youth unemployment rate was higher than the national youth unemployment rate of 13.2% in August, as Ontario's youth unemployment rate increased by 0.5 percentage points from 12 months ago.

During the summer months, Statistics Canada collects labour market data on youths aged 15 to 24 who were full-time students in March and plan to return to school full-time in the fall. Among these students in Ontario, employment fell by 19,600 (-3.7%) from 12 months ago to 504,100 in August. However, the unemployment rate among these students decreased by 0.6 percentage points to 16.3% as unemployment (-7.8%) also dropped sharply, although the participation rate also fell over the year. The provincial full-time student unemployment rate was higher than the national figure of 14.4%.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted monthly data August 2016 July 2016 August 2015 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,545.9 11,531.4 11,401.1 14.5 0.1 144.8 1.3
Labour force ('000) 7,477.4 7,447.0 7,448.3 30.4 0.4 29.1 0.4
Employment ('000) 6,977.1 6,966.6 6,939.9 10.5 0.2 37.2 0.5
Full-time ('000) 5,672.2 5,663.6 5,671.4 8.6 0.2 0.8 0.0
Part-time ('000) 1,304.8 1,303.1 1,268.4 1.7 0.1 36.4 2.9
Unemployment ('000) 500.3 480.3 508.5 20.0 4.2 -8.2 -1.6
Unemployment rate (%) 6.7 6.4 6.8 0.3 - -0.1 -
Participation rate (%) 64.8 64.6 65.3 0.2 - -0.5 -
Employment rate (%) 60.4 60.4 60.9 0.0 - -0.5 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Monthly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Unemployment rate (%) Employment ('000)
April 2015 6.8 6,889.6
May 2015 6.5 6,928.1
June 2015 6.5 6,940.1
July 2015 6.5 6,942.7
August 2015 6.8 6,939.9
September 2015 6.9 6,911.2
October 2015 6.8 6,941.6
November 2015 6.9 6,933.1
December 2015 6.7 6,966.1
January 2016 6.7 6,985.9
February 2016 6.8 6,974.7
March 2016 6.8 6,988.6
April 2016 7.0 6,985.3
May 2016 6.6 7,006.9
June 2016 6.4 7,002.7
July 2016 6.4 6,966.6
August 2016 6.7 6,977.1

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Ontario Monthly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted
August 2016
July 2016
August 2015
Monthly variation
(% points)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Total 6.7 6.4 6.8 0.3 -0.1
25 years and over 5.4 5.1 5.6 0.3 -0.2
Men - 25 years and over 5.6 5.2 5.7 0.4 -0.1
Women - 25 years and over 5.1 5.1 5.4 0.0 -0.3
15 to 24 years 14.6 14.2 14.1 0.4 0.5
Men - 15 to 24 years 15.8 16.1 15.5 -0.3 0.3
Women - 15 to 24 years 13.3 12.3 12.7 1.0 0.6

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Employment by industry

Employment growth in the goods-producing sector driven by gains in construction

Employment in Ontario's goods-producing sector declined by 4,500 in August, after an expansion of 13,800 in July. A month-over-month gain was recorded in construction (+7,000), while losses were recorded in manufacturing (-5,000), agriculture (-4,200), forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil, and gas (-1,700), and utilities (-700).

Employment in construction rose in August, following a 3.9% year-over-year increase in building permit values in July,Footnote3 and higher housing starts, up by 47.0% in July from 12 months ago.Footnote4 There were a number of funding announcements for new infrastructure projects across the province in August, including $3.0B for transit projectsFootnote5and $2.7M in restoration funding for four First Nations airports in Sachigo Lake, Lansdowne House, Deer Lake and Bearskin Lake.Footnote6In addition, the Port of Algoma redevelopment project in Sault Ste. Marie continued its progress, with the project expected to create about 1,350 full-time jobs,Footnote7while the Government of Ontario announced that FPInnovations in Thunder Bay will receive $4.5M to build a new bio-refinery plant.Footnote8

In addition to the infrastructure funding announcements, the Crown Ridge Place nursing home in Trenton announced that it will begin construction to upgrade their long-term care facility. This is one of the first nursing homes in the province to receive funding from the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care's redevelopment program, one that plans to eventually upgrade 300 care facilities across the province.Footnote9

Despite some factory expansions and funding announcements for new projects, employment declined by 5,000 in manufacturing in August, following a gain of 13,000 in July. National Steel Car Limited, one of Hamilton's largest employers, announced it would lay off 300 workers at its Hamilton plant, a significant loss for the industry.Footnote10 A number of manufacturing indicators, such as provincial manufacturing sales and the RBC Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI), have fallen slightly in recent months. As of June, manufacturing sales have mostly declined this year,Footnote11while lower client demand resulted in Ontario's manufacturers reporting a slow pace of production growth in June.Footnote12 Nevertheless, the PMI remains in expansionary territory for Ontario in August.Footnote13

Expansions announced by manufacturers in August across Ontario may result in a positive outlook for the industry over the next few months, including Highbury Canco HCC, who is hiring 200 seasonal workers, some with the potential to be permanent, at its food processing and packaging plant in Leamington.Footnote14Ford Motor Co. also announced they will extend the production of its GT supercar from two years to four at Multimatic Inc., an auto components company in Markham.Footnote15 Manufacturers secured a number of new contracts and grants as well, including Bombardier, who received a $428M order from Metrolinx for 125 GO Transit rail cars, with the production of the two-level commuter cars scheduled to start in Thunder Bay by 2019.Footnote16 In addition, Arnprior Aerospace Inc. won two major contracts from Boeing Corp. to build parts for a new commercial aircraft.Footnote17

Over the past 12 months, employment in the goods-producing sector grew by 11,800, as gains were registered in construction (+24,400) and manufacturing (+3,700). Offsetting this gain were losses in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-14,000), agriculture (-1,600), and utilities (-700) over the year.

Services-producing sector employment supported by gains across various industries

Ontario's services-producing sector recorded an expansion of 15,000 in August. Gains were recorded in educational services (+21,600), other services (+6,000), health care and social assistance (+5,100), finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing (+3,600), transportation and warehousing (+3,200), public administration (+2,800), and information, culture and recreation (+2,000).

The information and cultural industries is likely to benefit from some announcements in August, including a new Cineplex Entertainment LP theatre complex in Kitchener that plans to employ approximately 150 part-time workersFootnote18 and the provincial plan to invest $2.3M into five film and TV productions shooting in Sudbury.Footnote19However, Arc Productions Ltd., an animation and visual effects studio in Toronto, filed for bankruptcy, impacting more than 500 employees.Footnote20 Some of this was turned around, though, when Ottawa-based Jam Filled Entertainment announced that it would take over the former Arc studio and open an animation office with about 200 staff.Footnote21This is the company's first expansion into the Toronto market.

Employment gains were offset by losses in business, building and other support services (-11,700) and accommodation and food services (-7,400). Professional scientific and technical services also recorded a decline (-6,500), with Cisco Systems Inc., a communications and Internet solutions company, announcing plans to lay off approximately 5,500 employees worldwide. Although the total job impact on Ontario is currently unknown, almost 1,300 Cisco Systems employees are currently based in Ontario.Footnote22 On a brighter note,, a high-speed Internet service provider, is expanding and has purchased a new building in downtown London, employing over 100 people.Footnote23

The wholesale and retail trade industry declined by 4,200, partly due to the closure of Canadian retailer Ben Moss Jewellers Western Canada Ltd. after more than a century in business. The company has 19 locations in Ontario.Footnote24,Footnote25,Footnote26 Despite the decline in employment, several retail openings were also announced in August, which are likely to bear fruit in the upcoming months. This includes: Walmart Canada's second location in Guelph, which will employ around 170 full and part-time workers; K-Mobile's first flagship store in Toronto's East York Town Centre, with plans to expand to 250 stores across the Greater Toronto Area and hire 1,000 employees, including 100 Syrian refugees; and CF Rideau Centre's expansion in downtown Ottawa.Footnote27,Footnote28,Footnote29,Footnote30

Over the past 12 months, employment in the services-producing sector grew by 25,400. The health care and social assistance (+34,200), information, culture, and recreation (+12,300), professional, scientific and technical service (+8,600), and accommodation and food services (+6,800) industries led the province in growth. Employment gains in the sector were moderated by declines in educational services (-42,500), business, building and other support services (-9,600), and wholesale and retail trade (-700).

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) August 2016 July 2016 August 2015 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 6,977.1 6,966.6 6,939.9 10.5 0.2 37.2 0.5
Goods-producing sector 1,416.9 1,421.4 1,405.1 -4.5 -0.3 11.8 0.8
Agriculture 75.4 79.6 77.0 -4.2 -5.3 -1.6 -2.1
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying,
oil and gas
32.5 34.2 46.5 -1.7 -5.0 -14.0 -30.1
Utilities 50.0 50.7 50.7 -0.7 -1.4 -0.7 -1.4
Construction 506.6 499.6 482.2 7.0 1.4 24.4 5.1
Manufacturing 752.4 757.4 748.7 -5.0 -0.7 3.7 0.5
Services-producing sector 5,560.2 5,545.2 5,534.8 15.0 0.3 25.4 0.5
Trade 1,037.6 1,041.8 1,038.3 -4.2 -0.4 -0.7 -0.1
Transportation and warehousing 324.9 321.7 321.1 3.2 1.0 3.8 1.2
Finance, insurance, real estate
and leasing
553.4 549.8 550.6 3.6 0.7 2.8 0.5
Professional, scientific
and technical services
590.5 597.0 581.9 -6.5 -1.1 8.6 1.5
Business, building
and other support services
317.6 329.3 327.2 -11.7 -3.6 -9.6 -2.9
Educational services 488.8 467.2 531.3 21.6 4.6 -42.5 -8.0
Health care and social assistance 845.9 840.8 811.7 5.1 0.6 34.2 4.2
Information, culture and recreation 325.9 323.9 313.6 2.0 0.6 12.3 3.9
Accommodation and food services 448.2 455.6 441.4 -7.4 -1.6 6.8 1.5
Other services 281.3 275.3 277.5 6.0 2.2 3.8 1.4
Public administration 345.8 343.0 340.2 2.8 0.8 5.6 1.6

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional analysis

Despite job gains, growth in the Toronto economic region slowed in August 2016

Employment increased in the Toronto economic region by 29,500 between August 2015 and August 2016.Footnote31 Although employment rose for the fifth month in a row, this was the region's smallest year-over-year gain in 2016. Both the participation and employment rates were also down slightly from August 2015. K-Mobile opened its first mobile store in August, its first foray into the Toronto landscape.Footnote32The company plans to open 250 locations in the Greater Toronto Area and hire 1,000 staff.

Kingston–Pembroke had another solid performance with an employment gain of 17,200 over the past year. The employment rate increased to 58.0% in August 2016, its highest level in almost two years. The unemployment rate also remained below the provincial figure at 5.7%. The local manufacturing industry saw some positive developments in August. Kruger Products L.P. will invest $52M in its tissue paper manufacturing plant in Trenton, creating 119 jobs.Footnote33In addition, Tri-Art Manufacturing Inc. will invest about $1M to upgrade its paint and audio products plant in Kingston, creating 10 jobs.Footnote34

Employment grew in the Windsor–Sarnia economic region by 11,300 in August 2016. This was the region's largest year-over-year increase in 2016. The local unemployment rate also fell to 6.8%, as more residents secured work. The region saw several events that will likely boost the local labour market in the months ahead. Firstly, construction will start on a $70M redevelopment project at Devonshire Mall in Windsor. Footnote35This will be the largest expansion in 20 years with work planned until 2018. Nearby in Chatham, Enviroshake Inc. announced that it plans to add four production lines to its plant by the end of the year.Footnote36The company manufacturers recycled roofing materials.

Employment rose in both the Northeast and Northwest economic regions over the last year. Northern Ontario saw a few more mining projects advance in August 2016. Goldcorp Inc. announced that it would invest $90M at its Musselwhite Mine in northwestern Ontario to improve ore handling;Footnote37Lake Shore Gold Corp. will spend $80M on expansion work at its Bell Creek Mine in Timmins;Footnote38and Gowest Gold Ltd. will continue exploration activities at its Bradshaw Gold Deposit just north of Timmins.Footnote39

Elsewhere in the province, employment rose in the Ottawa economic region between August 2015 and August 2016. All of the gains were in part-time positions. In mid-August, the newly renovated CF Rideau Centre officially opened to shoppers in downtown Ottawa. The project took 36 months to complete and cost $360M.Footnote40

Labour market conditions remained weak in some parts of central Ontario in August 2016

Employment fell or was relatively unchanged in five economic regions between August 2015 and August 2016. The Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula saw the largest employment decline, with a loss of 19,900 in August 2016. At the same time, the regional unemployment rate climbed 0.5 percentage points to 6.6%. National Steel Car Limited, one of the region's largest employers, announced in late August that it would lay off 300 workers at its rail transportation manufacturing plant in Hamilton.Footnote41Shortly after, the company revealed that if orders do not improve in the near term, the plant might be idled by the end of the year.Footnote42The manufacturer cites less demand for rail tanker cars because of lower oil prices as the reason for the downturn. National Steel Car employs about 2,400 staff at its Hamilton plant.

Employment fell in Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie over the past year, with the entire decline in full-time work. However, the labour market may improve in the coming months as some companies open and expand in the region. Index Exchange will move into a larger office in Kitchener in the fall and will hire 40 more employees to support its advertising technology operations,Footnote43 while construction is set to begin on a Costco Wholesale Canada Ltd. location in Orillia. When complete, the store will employ about 250 workers.Footnote44

Similarly, the London economic region saw a drop in employment over the last 12 months. The local unemployment rate jumped to 6.9% in August 2016 as more residents were out of work. Meanwhile, employment growth was flat in the Muskoka–Kawarthas and the Stratford–Bruce Peninsula economic regions between August 2015 and August 2016.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
3-month moving averages
seasonally unadjusted data
Employment Unemployment rate
August 2016
August 2015
Yearly variation
August 2016
August 2015
Yearly variation
(% points)
Ontario 7,083.3 7,045.7 0.5 6.9 7.1 -0.2
Economic regions
Ottawa 699.8 694.7 0.7 7.0 7.3 -0.3
Kingston--Pembroke 219.7 202.5 8.5 5.7 7.9 -2.2
Muskoka--Kawarthas 163.3 163.1 0.1 8.2 6.6 1.6
Toronto 3,421.2 3,391.7 0.9 7.2 7.6 -0.4
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barrie 707.1 713.1 -0.8 5.7 5.6 0.1
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 721.6 741.5 -2.7 6.6 6.1 0.5
London 338.3 345.1 -2.0 6.9 5.8 1.1
Windsor--Sarnia 309.1 297.8 3.8 6.8 8.0 -1.2
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 143.7 144.3 -0.4 5.1 6.1 -1.0
Northeast 257.9 253.0 1.9 6.9 7.8 -0.9
Northwest 101.6 98.9 2.7 6.4 6.3 0.1

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122


In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Analysis Directorate, Service Canada, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.


Footnote 1

CBC News Staff. (2016, September 9). Canada adds 26,000 jobs in August, beating estimates. CBC News. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote1

Footnote 2

Gillespie, P. (2016, September 2). Hiring slows: America gains 151,000 jobs in August. CNNMoney. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote2

Footnote 3

Statistics Canada. (2016, September 9). CANSIM Table 026-0006, Building permits, by type of structure and area, seasonally adjusted monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted). Retrieved from

Return to Footnote3

Footnote 4

Statistics Canada. (2016, August 5). CANSIM Table 027-0054, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, all areas, Canada and provinces, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, monthly (units x 1,000). Retrieved from

Return to Footnote4

Footnote 5

CNW Staff. (2016, August 23). The Prime Minister of Canada and the Premier of Ontario announce agreement under new federal infrastructure funding program. CNW Group. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote5

Footnote 6

Bradley, S. (2016). Rehabilitation funding for First Nations airports. The Sioux Lookout Bulletin. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote6

Footnote 7

Content Team. (2016, July 27). Lieutenant Governor attends First Nations signing of Unity Pact with Port of Algoma. Sault Online. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote7

Footnote 8

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. Ontario Supporting Forestry Innovation. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote8

Footnote 9

Kuglin, E. (2016, August 2). Long-term investment for Crown Ridge Place. Trenton Trentonian. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote9

Footnote 10

Arnold, S. (2016, August 30). Steel Car: Company lays off 300 as orders slump. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote10

Footnote 11

Statistics Canada. (2016, September 9). CANSIM Table 304-0015, Manufacturing sales, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and province monthly (dollars x 1,000). Retrieved from

Return to Footnote11

Footnote 12

Markit Economics Limited. (2016, June 1). RBC Canadian Manufacturing PMI(tm) Regional Report. RBC. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote12

Footnote 13

IHS Markit Staff. (September 1, 2016). Markit Canada Manufacturing PMI. IHS Markit. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote13

Footnote 14

Loiselle, A. (2016, July 29). Highbury Canco Needs Hundreds Of Seasonal Workers. Blackburn News. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote14

Footnote 15

Canadian Staff. (2016, August 19). Ford to extend production run on Markham, Ont.-built GT supercar. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote15

Footnote 16

Spurr, B. (2016, August 2). Bombardier gets $428M order for GO Transit rail cars. Toronto Star. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote16

Footnote 17

Carter, J. (2016, August 18). Arnprior Aerospace buoyed by two major Boeing contracts. Arnprior Chronicle-Guide. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote17

Footnote 18

Davis, B. (2016, August 17). It's almost showtime at Cineplex cinemas in Kitchener. The Kitchener Record. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote18

Footnote 19

Government of Ontario, Office of the Premier. (2016, August 6). Ontario Supporting Film and TV Jobs Across Northern Ontario. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote19

Footnote 20

Lewis, M. (2016, August 2). Toronto's Arc Productions locks out staff after filing for bankruptcy. Toronto Star. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote20

Footnote 21

Wolfe, J. (2016, August 22). Jam Filled Entertainment Acquires Arc Productions. Animation World Network. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote21

Footnote 22

Thomson Reuters Staff. (2016, August 17). Cisco laying off 5,500 employees amid tech upheaval. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote22

Footnote 23

DeBono, N. (2016, August 14). Cable, Internet provider grows again. The London Free Press. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote23

Footnote 24

Retail Insider Staff. (2016, July 19). Taschen! Shutters Stores Amid Bankruptcy Proceedings. Retail Insider. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote24

Footnote 25

CBC News Staff. (2016, July 31). Winnipeg-based jewelry chain Ben Moss closing doors across the country. CBC News. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote25

Footnote 26

CNW Staff. (2016, July 29). Going-Out-Of-Business Sales Begin At All Ben Moss Jewellers Stores Saturday, July 30th. CNW Group. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote26

Footnote 27

Guelph Mercury Staff. (2016, August 3).Walmart number two set to open in Guelph. Guelph Mercury Tribune. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote27

Footnote 28

Digital Home Staff. (2016, August 8). K-Mobile Launches With New Smartphone and Opens Flagship Store in Ontario. Digital Home. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote28

Footnote 29

Retail Insider Staff. CF Rideau Centre Opens Substantial Four-Level Expansion [Photos and Floor Plan]. Retail Insider. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote29

Footnote 30

Orillia Today Staff. (2016, August 2). Work starts on Orillia COSTCO. Orillia Today. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote30

Footnote 31

Measured on a year-over-year seasonally unadjusted basis.

Return to Footnote31

Footnote 32

Heins, J. (2016, August 20). K-Mobile To Hire 100 Syrian Refugees to Work in 250 New Stores. K-Mobile. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote32

Footnote 33

Canadian Staff. (2016, August 31). Kruger launching $52M expansion at Trenton, Ont. plant, will create 119 jobs. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote33

Footnote 34

Canadian Staff. (2016, August 05). Kingston, Ont. paint manufacturer Tri-Art launching $1M expansion. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote34

Footnote 35

Danese, R. (2016, August 17). Windsor's Devonshire Mall getting $70-million facelift. Windsor Star. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote35

Footnote 36

Vega, N. (2016, August 18). Enviroshake Expanding In Chatham. Blackburn News. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote36

Footnote 37

Sudbury Mining Solutions Journal. (2016, August 22). Goldcorp announces $90 million investment for winze construction at Musselwhite Mine. Sudbury Mining Solutions Journal. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote37

Footnote 38

Gillis, L. (2016, August 10). Lake Shore Gold launches $80-million expansion. Timmins Press. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote38

Footnote 39

Giorno, F. (2016, August 06). More info on $17.6-M Gowest Gold deal. Timmins Today. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote39

Footnote 40

Pilieci, V. (2016, August 09). Architect behind massive Rideau Centre remodelling says it was all about creating breathing room. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote40

Footnote 41

Arnold, S. (2016, August 30). Steel Car: Company lays off 300 as orders slump. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote41

Footnote 42

Arnold, S. (2016, September 02). More National Steel Car layoffs loom. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote42

Footnote 43

Pender, T. (2016, August 06). Online auctions for digital ads spur growth at Index Exchange. The Retrieved from

Return to Footnote43

Footnote 44

Orillia Packet and Times. (2016, August 02). Orillia leases lane to Costco for construction. Orillia Packet and Times. Retrieved from

Return to Footnote44

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