Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: November 2016

This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.

Overview

Labour Force Trends – Ontario employment increases again in November

  • Ontario employment figures increased by 18,900 in November for a fourth consecutive monthly gain
  • Both full-time (+10,900) and part-time (+7,900) employment experienced gains
  • The unemployment rate inched lower to 6.3%, down 0.1 percentage points from the previous month

In November, Ontario employment climbed by 18,900 for a fourth consecutive monthly increase. Unlike last month where the catalyst was entirely part-time employment gains, November saw gains in both full-time (+10,900) and part-time (+7,900) employment. The provincial unemployment rate inched lower by 0.1 percentage points, from October, to 6.3% as unemployment declined by 9,900 over the month. The labour force expanded by 8,900, as the participation rate remained steady at 64.8%. Apart from August 2016, when it was 64.6%, the participation rate remains at lows not previously seen since February 1978.

In Canada, employment increased by 10,700 in November which continued a four month run of employment growth and significantly beat out estimates which expected an employment decline of 20,000.Footnote1 However, as with last month, the gains came completely from part-time employment (+19,400) while full-time employment dropped (-8,700). National employment in November was driven mainly by gains in Ontario which offset losses in Alberta and British Columbia. The national unemployment rate in November was down to 6.8%.

In the United States, total non-farm payroll employment increased by 178,000 in November slightly beating out the expected 175,000. The private sector accounted for 156,000 of this job creation which in itself was below expectationFootnote2. Also, the gain seen last month has been revised downwards. Despite this, November's numbers are positive overall, indicating a tightening U.S. labour market; the unemployment rate dropped to 4.6% in November from 4.9% in October and average hourly earnings was up by 2.5% from November 2015 to November 2016.Footnote3 These conditions may provide sufficient support for the U.S. Federal Reserve to raise its benchmark interest rate at its December meeting, which is expected by the vast majority of experts.Footnote4

Between November 2015 and November 2016, employment in Ontario increased by 104,500 year-over-year, with the majority of the gains coming from part-time employment. The unemployment rate dropped by 0.6 percentage points to 6.9%, due to a decrease of 42,100 in unemployment, year-over-year. However, the participation rate dropped by 0.3 percentage points, as the growth in population (+1.3%) continues to outpace the increase in labour force (+0.8%).

The unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 in Ontario increased by 0.2 percentage points to 13.5% in November. The participation and employment rates also went up over the month, due to growth in youth labour force and employment figures. Youth employment in November was driven by full-time work (+4,300). Ontario's youth unemployment rate remained higher than the national youth unemployment rate of 12.9% in November.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted monthly data November 2016 October 2016 November 2015 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,581.3 11,569.8 11,436.0 11.5 0.1 145.3 1.3
Labour force ('000) 7,508.5 7,499.6 7,446.2 8.9 0.1 62.3 0.8
Employment ('000) 7,037.6 7,018.7 6,933.1 18.9 0.3 104.5 1.5
Full-time ('000) 5,670.7 5,659.8 5,647.7 10.9 0.2 23.0 0.4
Part-time ('000) 1,366.8 1,358.9 1,285.4 7.9 0.6 81.4 6.3
Unemployment ('000) 471.0 480.9 513.1 -9.9 -2.1 -42.1 -8.2
Unemployment rate (%) 6.3 6.4 6.9 -0.1 - -0.6 -
Participation rate (%) 64.8 64.8 65.1 0.0 - -0.3 -
Employment rate (%) 60.8 60.7 60.6 0.1 - 0.2 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Monthly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Unemployment rate (%) Employment ('000)
November 2014 7.0 6,898.2
December 2014 7.0 6,881.6
January 2015 6.8 6,885.7
February 2015 6.9 6,900.6
March 2015 6.9 6,903.0
April 2015 6.8 6,889.6
May 2015 6.5 6,928.1
June 2015 6.5 6,940.1
July 2015 6.5 6,942.7
August 2015 6.8 6,939.9
September 2015 6.9 6,911.2
October 2015 6.8 6,941.6
November 2015 6.9 6,933.1
December 2015 6.7 6,966.1
January 2016 6.7 6,985.9
February 2016 6.8 6,974.7
March 2016 6.8 6,988.6
April 2016 7.0 6,985.3
May 2016 6.6 7,006.9
June 2016 6.4 7,002.7
July 2016 6.4 6,966.6
August 2016 6.7 6,977.1
September 2016 6.6 6,993.3
October 2016 6.4 7,018.7
November 2016 6.3 7,037.6

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Ontario Monthly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted
data
November 2016
%
October 2016
%
November 2015
%
Monthly variation
(% points)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Total 6.3 6.4 6.9 -0.1 -0.6
25 years and over 5.0 5.3 5.7 -0.3 -0.7
Men - 25 years and over 5.2 5.4 5.6 -0.2 -0.4
Women - 25 years and over 4.8 5.1 5.9 -0.3 -1.1
15 to 24 years 13.5 13.3 13.8 0.2 -0.3
Men - 15 to 24 years 14.8 14.6 15.3 0.2 -0.5
Women - 15 to 24 years 12.2 11.9 12.4 0.3 -0.2

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Employment by industry

Softer manufacturing and construction dampen goods-producing sector employment

In November, Ontario's goods-producing sector registered its biggest monthly loss in the second half of 2016. Seasonally adjusted employment figures shed 8,500 positions (-0.6%), countering gains in the previous month. Softness in construction (-4,100) and manufacturing (-3,200) employment offset the gains in utilities (+1,500).

Losses in construction employment in November belie an industry still riding high since earlier in 2016. Building permit values were 16% higher in the 12 months ending September, as a surge in residential permits coincided with the tail-end of a peak in commercial and institutional/governmental activity.Footnote5 Ontario's housing starts grew at a faster rate than the national average for most of 2016.Footnote6 Recent construction news includes a 348-unit condominium project underway in KitchenerFootnote7 and a $14.5M upgrade to a water treatment plant in Orillia is set to start by year-end.Footnote8 In institutional construction, infrastructure upgrades at Sandford Fleming College of Applied Arts and TechnologyFootnote9 and at Carleton UniversityFootnote10 are set to total $43.5M in investments. Commercial projects include infrastructure expansion in Hamilton to support the $85M Winona Crossing Development.Footnote11

The province's faltering manufacturing industry on the other hand has struggled to register employment growth over the year. While the national Purchasing Managers Index showed higher expansionary sentiment and staffing in November, export sales were weaker in Ontario despite a lower CAD/USD exchange rate.Footnote12 Layoffs announced include the closure of the Cambridge Towel Company Inc. in Kitchener, set to affect 160 workers,Footnote13 while the relocation of the Maple Leaf Foods Inc. Turkey processing plant is set to cost 400 jobs by early 2018.Footnote14 However, some positive announcements for wood products manufacturingFootnote15, Footnote16 were a silver lining in an otherwise cloudy November.

Year-over-year, goods-producing employment saw a decline of 700, weighed down by sizable drops in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-10,100) and agriculture (-5,600), and a decline in manufacturing (-4,900). Losses were undercut by growth in construction (+13,300) and utilities (+6,500).

Services-producing sector buoyed by FIRE despite losses in trade

The services-producing sector drove employment in Ontario, rising by 27,400 in November. Gains were recorded in most industries, led by the addition of 12,500 positions in finance, insurance, real estate and leasing (FIRE) and 8,800 in information, culture and recreation. Trade, the largest industry in the sector, saw a decline (-7,200) as did educational services (-7,100) and transportation and warehousing (-4,000).

The FIRE industry led employment growth amid positive signsFootnote17 from real estate companies riding out heated property markets in Toronto and record profitability announcements by many of the major banks.Footnote18

The largest hiring announcements for the sector came from the federal public service as the Canada Revenue Agency announced it will hire 650 employees in SudburyFootnote19 and Service Canada will hire over 80 for an operations and call centre, also in Sudbury.Footnote20

Moderating retail sales growth in the second half of 2016Footnote21 likely impacted retail and wholesale trade as price growth in Canada ate into purchasing power.Footnote22 Consumer confidence in Ontario has also waned slightly since its recent highs halfway through the year.Footnote23 In mid-November, Marathon's D. H. Foods, a 50-year old business, announced it would be closingFootnote24 as did Sears Canada Inc.'s Cobourg location.Footnote25

Compared to 12 months ago, services-producing employment was 105,300 higher. FIRE added some positions, but gains were mostly in health care and social assistance (+24,900), information, culture and recreation (+24,200) and accommodation and food services (+23,000). Declines were highest in transportation and warehousing (-3,400), and wholesale and retail trade (-3,000).

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) November 2016 October 2016 November 2015 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 7,037.6 7,018.7 6,933.1 18.9 0.3 104.5 1.5
Goods-producing sector 1,412.5 1,421.0 1,413.2 -8.5 -0.6 -0.7 0.0
Agriculture 73.1 76.1 78.7 -3.0 -3.9 -5.6 -7.1
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying,
oil and gas
33.8 33.7 43.9 0.1 0.3 -10.1 -23.0
Utilities 50.4 48.9 43.9 1.5 3.1 6.5 14.8
Construction 512.3 516.4 499.0 -4.1 -0.8 13.3 2.7
Manufacturing 742.8 746.0 747.7 -3.2 -0.4 -4.9 -0.7
Services-producing sector 5,625.1 5,597.7 5,519.8 27.4 0.5 105.3 1.9
Trade 1,023.3 1,030.5 1,026.3 -7.2 -0.7 -3.0 -0.3
Transportation and warehousing 326.5 330.5 329.9 -4.0 -1.2 -3.4 -1.0
Finance, insurance, real estate
and leasing
561.5 549.0 550.3 12.5 2.3 11.2 2.0
Professional, scientific
and technical services
592.4 589.7 591.5 2.7 0.5 0.9 0.2
Business, building
and other support services
326.6 325.4 328.5 1.2 0.4 -1.9 -0.6
Educational services 506.0 513.1 504.4 -7.1 -1.4 1.6 0.3
Health care and social assistance 843.5 838.7 818.6 4.8 0.6 24.9 3.0
Information, culture and recreation 327.6 318.8 303.4 8.8 2.8 24.2 8.0
Accommodation and food services 467.4 464.1 444.4 3.3 0.7 23.0 5.2
Other services 285.9 280.2 278.2 5.7 2.0 7.7 2.8
Public administration 364.2 357.7 344.5 6.5 1.8 19.7 5.7

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional analysis

Growth seen across Ontario in November

The Muskoka–Kawarthas region gained 26,600 in employmentFootnote26 between November 2015 and November 2016, and the unemployment rate fell from 6.6% to 4.2% as a result. An increase in labour force participation is another sign of a healthy labour market in the area. The construction industry dominated the news in the region in the past month, starting with the construction of the Hospice Peterborough Care Center on November 1st.Footnote27 Announcements were also made for the modernization of Fleming College campuses in Peterborough and Lindsay,Footnote28 as well as the construction of a new wastewater treatment plant and condominium units near Lake Muskoka.Footnote29

Employment in the Kingston–Pembroke economic region grew by 20,000 over the past year. In addition, unemployment fell and more people looked for work. Construction began on the new Rideau Heights Community Centre and Library in Kingston in November. The project is expected to be completed by winter 2018.Footnote30

Employment in Stratford–Bruce Peninsula also rose by 20,000 year-over-year. The regional unemployment rate declined from 5.9% to 3.0% - the lowest in the province by a significant margin. Stratford–Bruce Peninsula's labour market has been trending positively for three consecutive months, with higher employment, lower unemployment, and increased workforce participation. The region's manufacturing sector was bolstered by a $60M investment by Gay Lea Foods Co-Operative Ltd. into its Teeswater dairy plant, which will create 20 jobs.Footnote31

The Toronto economic region posted a modest employment gain of 12,300 (+0.4%), and the unemployment rate fell 0.3 percentage points to 6.6%. A number of retail locations are opening in the region, including cosmetics brand Urban Decay in Mississauga,Footnote32 and Azadi JewelleryFootnote33 and fashion brand m0851 in Toronto.Footnote34

Employment also rose in the Windsor–Sarnia, Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Ottawa, Northwest, and Northeast economic regions.

Employment declined in the Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie and London regions

The Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie region posted the largest employment loss (-21,800) between November 2015 and November 2016. The unemployment rate rose from 4.5% to 4.7%, though it is still among the lowest in Ontario. The regional manufacturing base was affected by the closure of Cambridge Towel Company Inc.Footnote35, however, robotic equipment manufacturer Innovative Automation is constructing a new 62,000-sq.-ft. facility in Barrie which will see 30 highly trained engineering professionals and tradespeople hired within the next year.Footnote36

Employment fell in the London economic region for the fourth consecutive month. Moreover, the unemployment rate dropped as fewer people looked for work. The largest layoff announcement came from Thamesford, where Maple Leaf Foods will be closing its turkey processing plant in 2018. Approximately 400 workers will be affected by the closure.Footnote37 Also, GoodLife Fitness is eliminating 60 jobs at its headquarters in London.Footnote38

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
3-month moving averages
seasonally unadjusted data
Employment Unemployment rate
November 2016
('000)
November 2015
('000)
Yearly variation
(%)
November 2016
(%)
November 2015
(%)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Ontario 7,026.9 6,936.9 1.3 5.9 6.4 -0.5
Economic regions
Ottawa 697.6 687.8 1.4 5.5 5.8 -0.3
Kingston--Pembroke 218.8 198.8 10.1 4.9 5.2 -0.3
Muskoka--Kawarthas 183.5 156.9 17.0 4.2 6.6 -2.4
Toronto 3,362.8 3,350.5 0.4 6.6 6.9 -0.3
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barrie 699.2 721.0 -3.0 4.7 4.5 0.2
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 734.9 722.6 1.7 5.7 6.0 -0.3
London 325.7 334.2 -2.5 5.5 6.1 -0.6
Windsor--Sarnia 302.4 285.2 6.0 5.7 7.9 -2.2
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 153.5 133.5 15.0 3.0 5.9 -2.9
Northeast 248.8 248.4 0.2 6.3 7.3 -1.0
Northwest 99.7 97.9 1.8 6.2 5.2 1.0

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Trading Economics. (2016, November 4). Canada Employment Change. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/canada/employment-change

Return to Footnote 1

Footnote 2

Trading Economics. (2016, December 2). U.S.Non-Farm Payrolls. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/non-farm-payrolls

Return to Footnote 2

Footnote 3

Trading Economics. (2016, December 2). U.S. Average Hourly Earnings. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/average-hourly-earnings

Return to Footnote 3

Footnote 4

2016, December 2). FedWatch Tool - Latest probabilities of FOMC rate moves. CME Group. Retrieved from: http://www.cmegroup.com/trading/interest-rates/countdown-to-fomc.html

Return to Footnote 4

Footnote 5

Statistics Canada. (2016, November). CANSIM Table 026-0006, Building permits, by type of structure and area, seasonally adjusted monthly. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=260006

Return to Footnote 5

Footnote 6

Statistics Canada. (2016, November). CANSIM Table 027-0054, CMHC, housing starts, seasonally adjusted annual rates, (x1,000). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0270054

Return to Footnote 6

Footnote 7

Flanagan, R. (2016, October 31). One Hundred groundbreaking in of downtown Kitchener's boom. CTV News. Retrieved from: : http://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/one-hundred-groundbreaking-latest-sign-of-downtown-kitchener-s-boom-1.3139918

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Footnote 8

Orillia Packet Staff. (2016, October 28). City council awards tender. Orillia Packet. Retrieved from: : http://www.orilliapacket.com/2016/10/28/city-council-awards-tender

Return to Footnote 8

Footnote 9

Government of Canada. (2016, November 7). Canada and Ontario invest in post-secondary infrastructure at Sir Sandford Fleming College of Applied Arts and Technology. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: : http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1149039

Return to Footnote 9

Footnote 10

Government of Canada. (2016, November 7). Canada and Ontario invest in post-secondary infrastructure at Carleton University. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: : http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=tp&crtr.page=7&nid=1149079&crtr.tp1D=1

Return to Footnote 10

Footnote 11

Pearson, M. (2016, November 15). Roadwork in Winona begins in anticipation of Costco development. Hamilton Community News. Stoney Creek News via Hamilton Community News. Retrieved from: : http://www.hamiltonnews.com/news-story/6967878-roadwork-in-winona-begins-in-anticipation-of-costco-development/

Return to Footnote 11

Footnote 12

Markit Economics. (2016, December 1). Markit Canada Manufacturing PMI. Markit Economics. Retrieved from: https://www.markiteconomics.com/Survey/PressRelease.mvc/448c6920595c499fae0b6e1957816d6b

Return to Footnote 12

Footnote 13

Vivan, R. (2016, November 3). UPDATE: Loss of Walmart contract preceded Cambridge Towel's pending closure. The Cambridge Times. Retrieved from: http://www.cambridgetimes.ca/news-story/6946277-update-loss-of-walmart-contract-preceded-cambridge-towel-s-pending-closure/

Return to Footnote 13

Footnote 14

Stacey, M. (2016, November 15). Maple leaf announces Thamesford plant will close; moving to Mitchell, Ont. Woodstock Sentinel-Review via the London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/11/15/maple-leaf-announces-that-thamesford-plant-will-be-closed-and-fresh-turkey-processing-will-move-to-sofina-facility-in-mitchell-ont

Return to Footnote 14

Footnote 15

Fort Frances Times Staff. (2016, October 31). Kenora mill adds shift. Fort Frances Times. Retrieved from: http://www.fftimes.com/news/local/news/kenora-mill-adds-shift

Return to Footnote 15

Footnote 16

CBC News Staff. (2016, November 15). Hornepayne mill owner eyeing mid-December start-up. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/hornepayne-mill-restart-2016-1.3850469

Return to Footnote 16

Footnote 17

Statistics Canada. (2016, September). CANSIM Table 281-0023, Employment by type and detailed NAICS, monthly unadjusted. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2810023

Return to Footnote 17

Footnote 18

The Canadian Press. (2016, December 1). CIBC profit up 20%, TD up 25% as bank earnings stay strong. Via CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/cibc-td-bank-earnings-1.3875980

Return to Footnote 18

Footnote 19

The Sudbury Star. (2016, November 18). CRA to add 543 jobs in Sudbury. The Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: : http://www.thesudburystar.com/2016/11/18/cra-to-add-543-in-sudbury

Return to Footnote 19

Footnote 20

MacDonald, D. (2016, November 22). Feds announce 83 new jobs for Sudbury. Sudbury.com. Retrieved from: : https://www.sudbury.com/local-news/feds-announce-83-new-jobs-for-sudbury-471099

Return to Footnote 20

Footnote 21

Statistics Canada. (2016, September). CANSIM Table 080-0020 - Retail trade, sales by NAICS, monthly (dollars). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=800020

Return to Footnote 21

Footnote 22

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 080-0024 - Retail trade, sales, chained dollars and price index based on NAICS, monthly. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a05?&id=0800024&pattern=0800024

Return to Footnote 22

Footnote 23

Nanos Research. (2016, November 25). Canada's Weekly Economic Mood. Bloomberg Nanos Canadian Confidence Index (BNCCI). Retrieved from: http://www.nanosresearch.com/tickers/PDF/Bloomberg%20Nanos%20BNCCI%202016-11-25.pdf

Return to Footnote 23

Footnote 24

Clutchey, C. (2016, November 17). Long-running grocery store in Marathon closes. The Chronicle Journal. Retrieved from: : http://www.chroniclejournal.com/news/long-running-grocery-store-in-marathon-closes/article_c77e2bc2-ace1-11e6-9292-d7a6099a4783.html

Return to Footnote 24

Footnote 25

MacDonald, V. (2016, November 23). Cobourg Sears store to close in March. Northumberland Today via The Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2016/11/23/cobourg-sears-store-to-close-in-march

Return to Footnote 25

Footnote 26

Measured on a year-over-year seasonally unadjusted basis.

Return to Footnote 26

Footnote 27

Guthrie, S. (2016, November 1). Ground breaking for Hospice Peterborough Center on London Street. CHEXTV. Retrieved from: http://www.chextv.com/2016/11/01/ground-breaking-for-hospice-peterborough-care-center-on-london-street/

Return to Footnote 27

Footnote 28

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2016 November 7). Canada and Ontario invest in post-secondary infrastructure at Sir Sandford Fleming College of Applied Arts and Technology. Government of Canada News Release. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1149039

Return to Footnote 28

Footnote 29

Cooper, B. (2016, November 20). New waste treatment plant underway at Touchstone Resort, Lake Muskoka. Gravenhurst Banner. Retrieved from: http://www.muskokaregion.com/news-story/6976391-new-waste-treatment-plant-underway-at-touchstone-resort-lake-muskoka/

Return to Footnote 29

Footnote 30

John, R. (2016, November 22). Construction Begins on Rideau Heights Community Centre and Library. Kingston Herald. Retrieved from: http://kingstonherald.com/news/rideau-heights-community-centre-2010317380

Return to Footnote 30

Footnote 31

Hiemstra, R. (2016, November 16). $60M investment at Teeswater Creamery. Blackburn News. Retrieved from: http://blackburnnews.com/midwestern-ontario/midwestern-ontario-news/2016/11/16/60-m-investment-teeswater-creamery/

Return to Footnote 31

Footnote 32

L'Oréal Discusses Urban Decay Canadian Store Expansion. (2016, November 21). Retail Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/11/urban-decay

Return to Footnote 32

Footnote 33

Azadi Jewellery Announces Expansion into North America. (2016, November 9). Retail Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/11/azadi

Return to Footnote 33

Footnote 34

m0851 Launches Mall Expansion Strategy. (2016, November 8). Retail Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/11/m0851

Return to Footnote 34

Footnote 35

Vivian, R. (2016, November 3). UPDATE: Loss of Walmart contract preceded Cambridge Towel's pending closure. Cambridge Times. Retrieved from: http://www.cambridgetimes.ca/news-story/6946277-update-loss-of-walmart-contract-preceded-cambridge-towel-s-pending-closure/

Return to Footnote 35

Footnote 36

Traber, C. (2016, November 17). Barrie's Innovative Automation celebrates banner week. Barrie Advance. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6968075-barrie-s-innovative-automation-celebrates-banner-week/

Return to Footnote 36

Footnote 37

Stacey, M. (2016, November 16). Maple Leaf announces Thamesford plant will close; moving to Mitchell, Ont. Woodstock Sentinel-Review. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/11/15/maple-leaf-announces-that-thamesford-plant-will-be-closed-and-fresh-turkey-processing-will-move-to-sofina-facility-in-mitchell-ont

Return to Footnote 37

Footnote 38

Daniszewski, H. (2016, October 28). GoodLife: London-based fitness chain eliminating 60 head office jobs and 225 at clubs. The London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/10/27/goodlife-london-based-fitness-chain-eliminating-60-head-office-jobs-and-225-at-clubs

Return to Footnote 38

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