Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: December 2016

The Quarterly Edition of the Labour Market Bulletin is a look back over the past three months, providing an analysis of quarterly Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.

Overview

Labour Force Trends—Ontario employment rebounds in the fourth quarter from a third quarter decline

  • Employment increased by 55,300 in the fourth quarter of 2016, recovering from a 19,300 decrease in the third quarter
  • Full-time employment (+6,200) and part-time employment (+49,100) both increased over the quarter
  • The unemployment rate for the fourth quarter of 2016 fell to 6.4%, down 0.2 percentage points from the previous quarter, due to a decrease of 13,000 in unemployment

Employment in Ontario jumped by 55,300 (0.8%) in the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2016 from the third quarter (Q3) of 2016, rebounding from the decline in Q3 2016 to post the largest quarterly employment gain since the second quarter (Q2) of 2010. Despite the impressive overall employment gain, the majority of the increase was seen in part-time employment (+49,100) while full-time employment also increased (+6,200) yet more modestly. The provincial unemployment rate also fell, to 6.4% in Q4 2016, down 0.2 percentage points from the third quarter, as unemployment declined by 13,000 over the period. The labour force increased by 42,200, as the participation rate ticked up by 0.1 percentage points to 64.8%.

In Canada, employment expanded by a sizeable 122,400 (0.7 %) in Q4 2016, the largest increase since Q2 2012. As in Ontario, most of the employment gain came from part-time employment (+91,500) which saw about triple the gains seen in full-time employment (+30,900). The national unemployment rate inched lower to 6.9%, down 0.1 percentage points from last quarter. Ontario and Quebec led the way nationally, together accounting for almost 85% of the employment gains, with the public administration, educational services, and construction industries showing employment strength nationally, compared to the previous quarter.

In the United States, total non-farm payrolls increased by 156,000 in December, coming in below the expectation of 178,000. The fourth quarter saw an average employment gain of 165,000, lower than the third quarter gain of 212,000.Footnote1 The federal unemployment rate (4.7%) is at low levels not seen since 2007, while average hourly earnings increased by 2.9% from December 2015 to December 2016.Footnote2 The American labour market appears to have very little slack left and the conditions provided sufficient support for the U.S. Federal Reserve as they raised benchmark interest rates by 0.25 percentage points to 0.75%. They have stated that two additional increases are likely through 2017, which is expected by the majority of experts.Footnote3

Between the fourth quarter of 2015 and 2016, employment in Ontario expanded by 87,400 (+1.3%) year-over-year. The unemployment rate dropped by 0.4 percentage points to 6.4%, as unemployment fell by 28,300 (-5.6%). The participation rate dropped by 0.4 percentage points, as the growth in population (+1.3%) outpaced the increase in labour force (+0.8%).

The unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 in Ontario declined by 0.6 percentage points to 13.7% in the fourth quarter of 2016, as unemployment increased by 14,200 (+1.5%). In addition, participation and employment rates both saw fairly strong increases from the third quarter, due to the increases in youth labour force and employment figures. Despite these positive quarterly numbers, the strength in the fourth quarter was seen in October and November, while December 2016 saw some negative youth figures. The provincial youth unemployment rate remains higher than the national youth unemployment rate of 12.1% in Q4 2016.

A look at labour market conditions for Ontario's Indigenous People

In the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2016, the total population aged 15+ in Ontario was 11.5 million. The Indigenous population living off-reserve accounted for 2.1% of that, or 239,500 people. Employment among the Indigenous population stood at 134,600 representing an increase of +16,600 (+14.1%) from a year earlier. The increase was in both full-time (+9,900), and part-time positions (+6,600).

The unemployment rate among the Indigenous population was 8.1% in Q4 2016, representing a decline of -1.5 percentage points (pp) from the previous year. The unemployment rate amongst the non-Indigenous population edged down slightly to 5.7% over the same time period (-0.5pp). Between Q4 2015 and Q4 2016, the participation rate of the Indigenous population increased to 61.2% (+3.7pp) year-over-year, while that of the non-Indigenous population edged down slightly to 64.5% (-0.4pp). The employment rate among the Indigenous population also increased from the previous year to 56.2% (+4.2pp), and the employment rate among non-Indigenous population the remained unchanged at 60.9%.

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted
Quarterly data
4th Quarter 2016 3rd Quarter 2016 4th Quarter 2015 Quarterly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,580.8 11,545.1 11,435.4 35.7 0.3 145.4 1.3
Labour force ('000) 7,511.9 7,469.7 7,452.8 42.2 0.6 59.1 0.8
Employment ('000) 7,034.3 6,979.0 6,946.9 55.3 0.8 87.4 1.3
Full-time ('000) 5,673.8 5,667.6 5,657.6 6.2 0.1 16.2 0.3
Part-time ('000) 1,360.5 1,311.4 1,289.3 49.1 3.7 71.2 5.5
Unemployment ('000) 477.6 490.6 505.9 -13.0 -2.6 -28.3 -5.6
Unemployment rate (%) 6.4 6.6 6.8 -0.2 - -0.4 -
Participation rate (%) 64.8 64.7 65.2 0.1 - -0.4 -
Employment rate (%) 60.8 60.4 60.8 0.4 - 0.0 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Ontario quarterly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Ontario quarterly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Unemployment Rate (%) Employment ('000)
4Q2010 8.2 6,578.3
1Q2011 8.0 6,628.6
2Q2011 8.0 6,662.0
3Q2011 7.7 6,674.4
4Q2011 7.9 6,667.5
1Q2012 7.8 6,673.9
2Q2012 7.9 6,693.3
3Q2012 7.9 6,707.4
4Q2012 8.1 6,740.6
1Q2013 7.8 6,781.1
2Q2013 7.6 6,815.2
3Q2013 7.5 6,843.3
4Q2013 7.5 6,850.4
1Q2014 7.4 6,859.1
2Q2014 7.3 6,866.1
3Q2014 7.3 6,880.3
4Q2014 6.9 6,904.1
1Q2015 6.9 6,896.4
2Q2015 6.6 6,919.3
3Q2015 6.7 6,931.3
4Q2015 6.8 6,946.9
1Q2016 6.8 6,983.1
2Q2016 6.7 6,998.3
3Q2016 6.6 6,979.0
4Q2016 6.4 7,034.3
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario quarterly employment growth. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario Canada
4Q2010 0.3% 0.3%
1Q2011 0.8% 0.5%
2Q2011 0.5% 0.3%
3Q2011 0.2% 0.4%
4Q2011 -0.1% 0.0%
1Q2012 0.1% 0.1%
2Q2012 0.3% 0.9%
3Q2012 0.2% 0.2%
4Q2012 0.5% 0.5%
1Q2013 0.6% 0.3%
2Q2013 0.5% 0.3%
3Q2013 0.4% 0.2%
4Q2013 0.1% 0.2%
1Q2014 0.1% 0.1%
2Q2014 0.1% 0.0%
3Q2014 0.2% 0.2%
4Q2014 0.3% 0.4%
1Q2015 -0.1% 0.2%
2Q2015 0.3% 0.2%
3Q2015 0.2% 0.2%
4Q2015 0.2% 0.2%
1Q2016 0.5% 0.1%
2Q2016 0.2% 0.2%
3Q2016 -0.3% 0.1%
4Q2016 0.8% 0.7%
Ontario Quarterly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted data 4th Quarter 2016
%
3rd Quarter 2016
%
4th Quarter 2015
%
Quarterly Variation
(% points)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Total 6.4 6.6 6.8 -0.2 -0.4
25 years and over 5.1 5.3 5.5 -0.2 -0.4
Men - 25 years and over 5.2 5.4 5.6 -0.2 -0.4
Women - 25 years and over 5.1 5.1 5.5 0.0 -0.4
15 to 24 years 13.7 14.3 14.1 -0.6 -0.4
Men - 15 to 24 years 14.5 16.1 15.8 -1.6 -1.3
Women - 15 to 24 years 12.9 12.5 12.4 0.4 0.5

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Labour Market Indicators for Indigenous People
3-month moving averages
Seasonally unadjusted data
Indigenous Yearly variation (Indigenous) Non-Indigenous Yearly variation (non-Indigenous)
Q4 2016 Q4 2015 Number % Q4 2016 Q4 2015 Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 239.5 227.1 12.4 5.5% 11,341.4 11,208.2 133.2 1.2%
Labour force ('000) 146.5 130.5 16.0 12.3% 7,318.9 7,273.5 45.4 0.6%
Employment ('000) 134.6 118.0 16.6 14.1% 6,902.8 6,825.0 77.8 1.1%
Full-time ('000) 102.1 92.2 9.9 10.7% 5,543.3 5,532.6 10.7 0.2%
Part-time ('000) 32.4 25.8 6.6 25.6% 1,359.4 1,292.4 67.0 5.2%
Unemployment ('000) 11.9 12.5 -0.6 -4.8% 416.1 448.5 -32.4 -7.2%
Unemployment rate (%) 8.1 9.6 -1.5 - 5.7 6.2 -0.5 -
Participation rate (%) 61.2 57.5 3.7 - 64.5 64.9 -0.4 -
Employment rate (%) 56.2 52.0 4.2 - 60.9 60.9 0 -

Notes: The Labour Force Survey excludes those living on-reserve.

            Estimates are based on three-month moving averages.

            Totals may not add due to rounding.

            Totals may be different from other tables due to adjustments done to indigenous statistics in the Labour Force Survey.

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey - ESDC custom table.

Employment by industry

Employment in the goods-producing sector supported by construction

Ontario's goods-producing sector added 2,400 positions (0.2%) in the last three months of 2016. This was the second quarter of gains in seasonally adjusted employment. Growth was driven by a surge in construction employment (+13,900) and dampened by softness in manufacturing (-9,300) and agriculture (-2,900).

In construction, building activity maintained its strength early in the quarter with consistent gains in residential permit values and a rebound in commercial while institutional and governmental permit values mined new lows.Footnote4 Positive forward-looking signals from strong residential permits contrasted with actual housing starts, which fell by a third in November, even after controlling for seasonal fluctuation.Footnote5

Recent construction announcements include a residential condominium in KitchenerFootnote6, commercial space in Centre WellingtonFootnote7 as well as infrastructure expansion in Hamilton to support commercial growth.Footnote8 Other non-residential investments at post-secondary facilities in Ontario may lead to new opportunities in educational services down the road with several colleges and universities receiving funding. Footnote9 Footnote10 Footnote11 Footnote12 Footnote13 Footnote14

While there are signs manufacturing may be better off than its employment figures suggest,Footnote15 the industry has strained to post consistent gains. So although the national Purchasing Managers Index signalled expansion and increased staffing over the quarter, Ontario manufacturing and export sales were weaker than the national average. However, stronger domestic demand may bode well for 2017.Footnote16

In the key light automotive segment, agreements reached between Unifor and the big three automakers averted strike action and called for investments in Ontario going forward. Fiat Chrysler Automobile announced some hiring activityFootnote17 as did some upstream parts makers.Footnote18 However, the downturn in commodities prices is affecting heavy-duty auto makers.Footnote19 In other manufacturing, Sofina Foods Inc.,Footnote20 and Diamond Aircraft Industries IncFootnote21 had positive hiring announcements, while BlackBerry Ltd. announced it will outsource design and production of its BlackBerry devices.Footnote22 Fellow Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Inc., will also eliminate 2,000 jobs nationwide, with an unknown impact in Ontario.Footnote23

Compared to the fourth quarter of 2015, goods-producing sector employment increased by 8,900 (+0.6%), with construction (+22,900) again driving most of the growth. Year-over-year declines were highest in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-10,000) and in manufacturing (-5,700).

Widespread services-producing sector growth led by educational services and public administration

The majority of Ontario's fourth quarter employment growth came from the services-producing sector which added 52,900 positions (1.0%). Gains were highest in educational services (+20,500) and public administration (+14,200) but were spread across most industries. Losses were only recorded in trade (-8,000) and in information, culture and recreation (-1,700).

Gains in educational services compensated for losses in the previous quarter as industry employment was only slightly off its year ago levels. Growth was likely more in post-secondary than earlier tiers as declining school enrollmentsFootnote24 have affected employment levels. Expected hiring at post-secondary institutionsFootnote25 should only further support industry growth. Public administration employment growth came from across federal, provincial, and municipal levels of government. Provincial hiring included correctional safety officersFootnote26 while federally both the Canada Revenue AgencyFootnote27 and Service CanadaFootnote28 made hiring announcements.

Losses in the trade industry were likely more in retail than wholesale trade.Footnote29 Despite an uptick in retail sales at the start of the quarter,Footnote30 the industry has been impacted by uncertainty. Consumer confidence in Ontario has waned slightly since its recent mid-2016 highs, but showed some signs of recovery at year-end.Footnote31 While wholesale trade saw positive news over the quarter,Footnote32 Footnote33 news in retail was mixed. Encouraging store openingsFootnote34 and seasonal holiday hiring, such as at Amazon.com Inc., Footnote35 were balanced out by layoff announcements at established retailers such as Sears CanadaFootnote36 Footnote37 and independents such as D. H. Foods.Footnote38

Despite decreasing this quarter, information and culture employment remained high (+4.4%, year-over-year) after several quarters of strong growth even as the industry adapts to an ever-changing media landscape. Rogers Communications Inc.Footnote39 and Rogers MediaFootnote40 announced layoffs in Toronto as the media incumbent restructures while Deluxe Entertainment Services Group's Stereo D plans to expand its digital media operations, also in Toronto.Footnote41

Between the fourth quarter of 2015 and the fourth quarter of 2016, services-producing sector employment grew by 78,600 (+1.4%). Gains were highest in healthcare and social assistance (+22,600), accommodation and food services (+20,500) and in information, culture and recreation (+19,300). Losses were felt most in trade (-4,800) and business, building and other support services (-4,200).

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) 4th Quarter 2016 3rd Quarter 2016 4th Quarter 2015 Quarterly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 7,034.3 6,979.0 6,946.9 55.3 0.8 87.4 1.3
Goods-producing sector 1,418.9 1,416.5 1,410.0 2.4 0.2 8.9 0.6
Agriculture 73.7 76.6 77.3 -2.9 -3.8 -3.6 -4.7
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 33.9 33.1 43.9 0.8 2.4 -10.0 -22.8
Utilities 50.2 50.3 44.9 -0.1 -0.2 5.3 11.8
Construction 516.3 502.4 493.4 13.9 2.8 22.9 4.6
Manufacturing 744.8 754.1 750.5 -9.3 -1.2 -5.7 -0.8
Services-producing sector 5,615.4 5,562.5 5,536.8 52.9 1.0 78.6 1.4
Trade 1,026.3 1,034.3 1,031.1 -8.0 -0.8 -4.8 -0.5
Transportation and warehousing 327.1 325.7 327.9 1.4 0.4 -0.8 -0.2
Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 557.6 551.0 553.9 6.6 1.2 3.7 0.7
Professional, scientific and technical services 596.2 591.3 590.0 4.9 0.8 6.2 1.1
Business, building and other support services 326.7 324.8 330.9 1.9 0.6 -4.2 -1.3
Educational services 506.3 485.8 504.4 20.5 4.2 1.9 0.4
Health care and social assistance 844.3 843.1 821.7 1.2 0.1 22.6 2.8
Information, culture and recreation 323.4 325.1 304.1 -1.7 -0.5 19.3 6.3
Accommodation and food services 463.7 456.1 443.2 7.6 1.7 20.5 4.6
Other services 282.6 277.2 282.7 5.4 1.9 -0.1 0.0
Public administration 361.1 347.9 346.9 13.2 3.8 14.2 4.1

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional analysis

Muskoka–Kawarthas led employment growth in the fourth quarter of 2016

Employment increased by 32,600 in the Muskoka–Kawarthas economic region between the fourth quarters of 2015 and 2016 (measured on a year-over-year, seasonally unadjusted basis). The region posted one of the lowest unemployment rates in the province as it fell from 6.3% to 3.9% over the year. Labour market conditions continued to pick up in the area and employment gains were entirely realized in the services-producing sector. However, news coming out of the goods-producing sector in the quarter was a cause for optimism. In construction, new projects include the expansion of the Bata Research and Innovation Cluster at Trent University in Peterborough,Footnote42 the construction of the Hospice Peterborough Care Center,Footnote43 the modernization of Fleming College campuses in Peterborough and Lindsay,Footnote44 as well as the construction of a new wastewater treatment plant and condominium units near Lake Muskoka.Footnote45

The Kingston–Pembroke economic region continued its trend of job creation as employment grew by 23,800 over the year. In addition, the unemployment rate dropped from 5.6% to 4.3% and the labour market participation increased in the region. Both the goods-producing sector and the services-producing sector contributed to employment gains. In the manufacturing industry, infant formula manufacturer Feihe International Inc. will open a plant in Kingston by 2019. It is expected to create about 1,000 jobs during construction and 200 full-time jobs once completed.Footnote46 Also, the Government of Ontario has announced that it will invest $4M into the Lavern Heideman & Sons Ltd. sawmill in Eganville, creating 18 new positions.Footnote47

Employment recovered in the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula economic region in the fourth quarter following a loss registered in the previous quarter. The region posted a year-over-year employment gain of 18,800 and the unemployment rate fell from 6.1% to 5.5%. The region's deep manufacturing base received good news this past quarter with job creation announcements coming from Gay Lea Foods,Footnote48 Allied Marine & Industrial Inc.,Footnote49 Cambridge Pro Fab Inc.,Footnote50 and Parrish and Heimbecker Ltd.Footnote51 In the educational services industry, the Hamilton Public School Board hired an extra 54 elementary school teachers as a result of higher student enrolment in 2016-2017.Footnote52

Sluggish growth persisted in the Toronto economic region, with employment increasing by just 5,000 in the fourth quarter. The unemployment rate dropped to 6.3% as fewer people looked for work. However, activity in the retail sales and construction industries remained high with a number of new store openings and new construction projects announced.

Employment also grew in the Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Ottawa, Windsor–Sarnia, Northeast, and Northwest economic regions.

Employment declines recorded in two economic regions this quarter

The largest year-over-year loss this quarter was in the Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie economic region, which saw a drop of 20,900 between the fourth quarters of 2015 and 2016. The unemployment rate, though, held steady at 4.8% due to a decrease in labour force participation. The regional manufacturing industry suffered some losses in the last three months. Cambridge Towel Company Inc. closed their manufacturing facility in November, which affected approximately 160 workers.Footnote53 Hitachi Construction Truck Manufacturing Ltd. laid off 129 production workers at its Guelph facility in December, though some workers may be recalled in January.Footnote54 In addition, aluminum cans and bottles manufacturer CCL Industries Inc. will begin laying off about 70 employees in Penetaguishene in January 2017.Footnote55 However, firms such as Clearpath Robotics Inc.,Footnote56 Innovative Automation Inc.,Footnote57 and MTM Automation and Aerospace Manufacturing Inc.Footnote58 have announced plans to invest into their operations, which bodes well for the industry going forward.

Employment in the London economic region declined by a modest 8,700 in the fourth quarter, and the regional unemployment rate increased from 5.3% to 5.6% over the year. The most significant layoff news came from Maple Leaf Foods, which will shut down its turkey processing plant in Thamesford by early 2018. About 400 employees will be laid off as a result.Footnote59

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
Seasonally unadjusted data Employment Unemployment Rate
4th Quarter 2016
('000)
4th Quarter 2015
('000)
Yearly Variation
(%)
4th Quarter 2016
(%)
4th Quarter 2015
(%)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Ontario 7,041.6 6,948.2 1.3 5.7 6.2 -0.5
Economic regions
Ottawa 703.0 690.3 1.8 5.3 5.5 -0.2
Kingston--Pembroke 220.9 197.1 12.1 4.3 5.6 -1.3
Muskoka--Kawarthas 188.3 155.7 20.9 3.9 6.3 -2.4
Toronto 3,370.6 3,365.6 0.1 6.3 6.6 -0.3
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barrie 697.8 718.7 -2.9 4.8 4.8 0.0
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 739.5 720.7 2.6 5.5 6.1 -0.6
London 324.1 332.8 -2.6 5.6 5.3 0.3
Windsor--Sarnia 298.2 287.3 3.8 5.6 8.0 -2.4
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 154.0 137.4 12.1 3.8 5.7 -1.9
Northeast 245.7 243.6 0.9 6.6 7.5 -0.9
Northwest 99.5 98.9 0.6 6.2 5.4 0.8

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122

Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q4-2015 to Q4-2016
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q4-2015 to Q4-2016. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region
Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie -2.9%
London -2.6%
Toronto 0.1%
Northwest 0.6%
Northeast 0.9%
Ottawa 1.8%
Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula 2.6%
Windsor-Sarnia 3.8%
Kingston-Pembroke 12.1%
Stratford-Bruce Peninsula 12.1%
Muskoka-Kawarthas 20.9%

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Trading Economics. (2016, January 6). U.S.Non-Farm Payrolls. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/non-farm-payrolls

Return to Footnote 1

Footnote 2

Trading Economics. (2016, January 6). U.S. Average Hourly Earnings. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/average-hourly-earnings

Return to Footnote 2

Footnote 3

2016, January 6). FedWatch Tool - Latest probabilities of FOMC rate moves. CME Group. Retrieved from: http://www.cmegroup.com/trading/interest-rates/countdown-to-fomc.html

Return to Footnote 3

Footnote 4

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 026-0006, Building permits, by structure type/area, seasonally adjusted monthly ($ unless otherwise noted). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=260006

Return to Footnote 4

Footnote 5

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 027-0054, CMHC, housing starts, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, monthly (units x 1,000). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0270054

Return to Footnote 5

Footnote 6

Flanagan, R. (2016, October 31). One Hundred ground-breaking in of downtown Kitchener's boom. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/one-hundred-groundbreaking-latest-sign-of-downtown-kitchener-s-boom-1.3139918

Return to Footnote 6

Footnote 7

Robinson, M. (2016, December 2). Pearle Hospitality hosts official ground-breaking for $120-million Elora Mill project. The Wellington Advertiser. Retrieved from: http://www.wellingtonadvertiser.com/comments/index.cfm?articleID=33631

Return to Footnote 7

Footnote 8

Pearson, M. (2016, November 15). Roadwork in Winona begins in anticipation of Costco development. Hamilton Community News. Stoney Creek News via Hamilton Community News. Retrieved from: http://www.hamiltonnews.com/news-story/6967878-roadwork-in-winona-begins-in-anticipation-of-costco-development/

Return to Footnote 8

Footnote 9

Morden, P. (2016, September 23). Lambton College announces $11.8-million renovation. Sarnia Observer. Retrieved from: http://www.theobserver.ca/2016/09/23/lambton-college-announces-118-million-renovation

Return to Footnote 9

Footnote 10

Noseworthy, K. (2016, September 30). Ottawa gives Mohawk College $20M for new technology lab building. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6887363-ottawa-gives-mohawk-college-20m-for-new-technology-lab-building/

Return to Footnote 10

Footnote 11

Government of Canada. (2016, October 7). Canada and Ontario invest in infrastructure at Sheridan College. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1134489

Return to Footnote 11

Footnote 12

Hicks, J. (2016, December 19). Conestoga to double size of Waterloo campus with $43.5-million makeover. The Waterloo Record. Retrieved from: http://www.therecord.com/news-story/7027578-conestoga-to-double-size-of-waterloo-campus-with-43-5-million-makeover/

Return to Footnote 12

Footnote 13

Government of Canada. (2016, November 7). Canada and Ontario invest in post-secondary infrastructure at Carleton University. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=tp&crtr.page=7&nid=1149079&crtr.tp1D=1

Return to Footnote 13

Footnote 14

Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development. (2016, December 13). Ontario Supporting Modern Science and Technology Facilities for Ottawa Students. Ontario Newsroom. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/maesd/en/2016/12/ontario-supporting-modern-science-and-technology-facilities-for-ottawa-students.html

Return to Footnote 14

Footnote 15

Statistics Canada. Table 281-0063 - SEPH, employment & average weekly earnings by NAICS, seasonally adjusted. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2810063

Return to Footnote 15

Footnote 16

Markit Economics. (2017, January 3). Markit Canada Manufacturing PMI. Markit Economics. Retrieved from: https://www.markiteconomics.com/Survey/PressRelease.mvc/aad4d3c30e9f4bd3a5a22389a0027c24

Return to Footnote 16

Footnote 17

Thorne, L. (2016, October 18). FCA Hiring Production Team Members. Windsorite News. Retrieved from: http://windsorite.ca/2016/10/fca-hiring-production-team-members/

Return to Footnote 17

Footnote 18

CTV Kitchener. (2016, November 28). Stratford auto parts plant to undergo $50-million expansion. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/stratford-auto-parts-plant-to-undergo-50-million-expansion-1.3180382

Return to Footnote 18

Footnote 19

Seto, C. (2016, December 7). Hitachi's Guelph plant lays off 129 production workers. Guelph Mercury Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.guelphmercury.com/news-story/7007793-hitachi-s-guelph-plant-lays-off-129-production-workers/

Return to Footnote 19

Footnote 20

Simmons, G. (2016, December 5). Sofina's in Mitchell set to commence operations in 2017. The Mitchell Advocate. Retrieved from: http://www.mitchelladvocate.com/2016/12/05/sofinas-in-mitchell-set-to-commence-operations-in-2017

Return to Footnote 20

Footnote 21

Daniszewski, H. (2016, December 21). More jobs on horizon as Chinese firm buys stake in London's Diamond Aircraft. The Woodstock Sentinel Review. Retrieved from: http://www.woodstocksentinelreview.com/2016/12/20/londons-diamond-aircraft-sold-to-chinese-interests-reports-say

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Footnote 22

Sagan, A. (2016, September 28). BlackBerry to leave smartphone hardware business. Guelph Mercury Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.guelphmercury.com/news-story/6882771-blackberry-to-leave-smartphone-hardware-business/

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Footnote 23

Marowits, R. (2016, October 21). Bombardier announces 2,000 cuts in Canada. Global News. Retrieved from: http://globalnews.ca/news/3017508/bombardier-announces-2000-job-cuts-in-canada-5500-more-worldwide/

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Footnote 24

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Education. (2016, February 16). Education Facts, 2014-2015. Retrieved from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/educationfacts.html

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Footnote 25

Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (2016, December 19). FedDev Ontario Invests in Manufacturing Innovation in the Golden Horseshoe. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=tp&crtr.page=4&nid=1171469&crtr.tp1D=1

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Footnote 26

Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. (2016, December 15). Ontario Hiring More Staff; enhancing Correctional Services. Ontario Government Newsroom. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mcscs/en/2016/12/ontario-hiring-more-staff-and-enhancing-supports-to-reform-correctional-services.html

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Footnote 27

The Sudbury Star. (2016, November 18). CRA to add 543 jobs in Sudbury. The Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thesudburystar.com/2016/11/18/cra-to-add-543-in-sudbury

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Footnote 28

MacDonald, D. (2016, November 22). Feds announce 83 new jobs for Sudbury. Sudbury.com. Retrieved from: https://www.sudbury.com/local-news/feds-announce-83-new-jobs-for-sudbury-471099

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Footnote 29

Statistics Canada. Table 281-0063 - SEPH, employment & average weekly earnings by NAICS, seasonally adjusted. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2810063

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Footnote 30

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 080-0020 - Retail trade, sales by NAICS, monthly (dollars). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=800020

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 080-0024 - Retail trade, sales, chained dollars and price index based on NAICS, monthly. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a05?&id=0800024&pattern=0800024

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Footnote 31

Nanos Research. (2016, December 30). Canada's Weekly Economic Mood. Bloomberg Nanos Canadian Confidence Index (BNCCI). Retrieved from: http://www.nanosresearch.com/tickers/PDF/Bloomberg%20Nanos%20BNCCI%202016-12-30.pdf

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Footnote 32

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. (2016, December 13). Ontario Helping Create Jobs and Boost Economic Growth in Burlington. Ontario Government Newsroom. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2016/12/ontario-helping-create-jobs-and-boost-economic-growth-in-burlington.html

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Footnote 33

Kopun, F. (2016, December 14). Costco to launch new store format in GTA. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2016/12/14/costco-to-launch-new-store-format-in-gta.html

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Footnote 34

Retail Insider. (2016, December 1). MEC Continues Unprecedented Store Expansion into 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/12/mec

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Footnote 35

Patnaik S. and Ganapavaram A. (2016, October 13). Amazon to hire over 2,000 seasonal workers for holidays. BNN. Retrieved from: http://www.bnn.ca/amazon-to-hire-more-than-2-000-seasonal-workers-in-canada-for-holidays-1.584332

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Footnote 36

Terfloth, T. (2016, October 26). Sears won't renew lease at DCC. Chatham Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.chathamdailynews.ca/2016/10/26/sears-wont-renew-lease-at-dcc

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Footnote 37

MacDonald, V. (2016, November 23). Cobourg Sears store to close in March. Northumberland Today - The Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2016/11/23/cobourg-sears-store-to-close-in-march

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Footnote 38

Clutchey, C. (2016, November 17). Long-running grocery store in Marathon closes. The Chronicle Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.chroniclejournal.com/news/long-running-grocery-store-in-marathon-closes/article_c77e2bc2-ace1-11e6-9292-d7a6099a4783.html

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Footnote 39

Posadzki, A. (2016, September 30). Rogers announces magazine overhaul. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://www.ctvnews.ca/business/rogers-announces-magazine-overhaul-will-stop-printing-4-publications-1.3095964

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Footnote 40

Craig, S. (2016, December 1). Rogers Media lays off 27 employees as part of restructuring at English-language publications. The National Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/news/rogers-media-announces-layoffs-and-restructuring-at-english-language-publications

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Footnote 41

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2016, December 13). Ontario Partnering with Digital Media Industry Leader to Expand Operations. Ontario Government Newsroom. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2016/12/ontario-partnering-with-digital-media-industry-leader-to-expand-operations.html

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Footnote 42

Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development. (2016, October 12). Ontario Supporting Innovative Learning for Peterborough Residents. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/maesd/en/2016/10/ontario-supporting-innovative-learning-for-peterborough-students.html

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Footnote 43

Guthrie, S. (2016, November 1). Ground breaking for Hospice Peterborough Center. CHEXTV. Retrieved from: http://www.chextv.com/2016/11/01/ground-breaking-for-hospice-peterborough-care-center-on-london-street/

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Footnote 44

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2016 November 7). Canada and Ontario invest in post-secondary infrastructure at Sir Sandford Fleming College of Applied Arts and Technology. Government of Canada News Release. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1149039

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Footnote 45

Cooper, B. (2016, November 20). New waste treatment plant underway at Touchstone Resort, Lake Muskoka. Gravenhurst Banner. Retrieved from: http://www.muskokaregion.com/news-story/6976391-new-waste-treatment-plant-underway-at-touchstone-resort-lake-muskoka/

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Footnote 46

Kingston Whig-Standard. (2016, December 1). Baby formula company to generate hundreds of jobs. The Whig. Retrieved from: http://www.thewhig.com/2016/12/01/baby-formula-company-to-generate-hundreds-of-jobs

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Footnote 47

Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. (2016, November 28). Ontario Supports Jobs in Eastern Ontario. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mnr/en/2016/11/ontario-supporting-good-jobs-in-eastern-ontario.html

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Footnote 48

McNeil, M. (2016, November 18). Salerno to be home to $3 million R&D facility. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6972836-salerno-to-be-home-to-3-million-r-d-facility/

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Footnote 49

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2016, November 8). Ontario Investing in Advanced Manufacturing in Port Colborne. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2016/11/ontario-investing-in-advanced-manufacturing-in-port-colborne.html

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Footnote 50

FedDev Ontario. (2016, October 28). FedDev Ontario Invests in Brantford Manufacturer. Government of Canada News Release. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=advSrch&crtr.mnthndVl=&crtr.mnthStrtVl=&crtr.page=1&nid=1143309&crtr.yrndVl=&crtr.kw=brantford&crtr.yrStrtVl=&crtr.dyStrtVl=&crtr.dyndVl

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Footnote 51

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2016, October 27). Canada invests in new technology at Hamilton flour milling plant. Government of Canada News Release. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=advSrch&crtr.mnthndVl=&crtr.mnthStrtVl=&crtr.page=1&nid=1143819&crtr.yrndVl=&crtr.kw=hamilton&crtr.yrStrtVl=&crtr.dyStrtVl=&crtr.dyndVl

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Footnote 52

Leitner, R. (2016, October 13). Hamilton elementary school enrolment jump adds 54 teachers. Hamilton Mountain News. Retrieved from: http://www.hamiltonnews.com/news-story/6906836-hamilton-elementary-school-enrolment-jump-adds-54-teachers/

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Footnote 53

Vivian, R. (2016, November 3). UPDATE: Loss of Walmart contract preceded Cambridge Towel's pending closure. Cambridge Times. Retrieved from: http://www.cambridgetimes.ca/news-story/6946277-update-loss-of-walmart-contract-preceded-cambridge-towel-s-pending-closure/

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Footnote 54

Seto, C. (2016, December 7). Hitachi's Guelph plant lays off 129 production workers. Guelph Mercury. Retrieved from: http://www.guelphmercury.com/news-story/7007793-hitachi-s-guelph-plant-lays-off-129-production-workers/

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Footnote 55

Burns, I. (2016, December 1). End is near for CCL Containers in Penetanguishene. Midland Mirror. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6994959-end-is-near-for-ccl-containers-in-penetanguishene/

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Footnote 56

Dingman, S. (2016, October 5). Clearpath Robotics raises $30-million to bring drones to factory floors. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/clearpath-robotics-raises-30-million-to-bring-drones-to-factory-floors/article32256654/

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Footnote 57

Traber, C. (2016, November 17). Barrie's Innovative Automation celebrates banner week. Barrie Advance. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6968075-barrie-s-innovative-automation-celebrates-banner-week/

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Footnote 58

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2016, December 2). Ontario Investing in Advanced Manufacturing in Guelph. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2016/12/ontario-investing-in-advanced-manufacturing-in-guelph.html

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Footnote 59

Stacey, M. (2016, November 15). Maple Leaf announces Thamesford plant will close; turkey processing move to Sofina facility in Mitchell, Ont. Woodstock Sentinel-Review. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/11/15/maple-leaf-announces-that-thamesford-plant-will-be-closed-and-fresh-turkey-processing-will-move-to-sofina-facility-in-mitchell-ont

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