Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: January 2017

This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.

Overview

Labour Force Trends – Ontario employment increases again in January

  • Ontario employment figures increased by 28,800 in January for the sixth consecutive monthly gain
  • Both full-time (+5,300) and part-time (+23,500) employment experienced gains
  • The unemployment rate held steady at 6.4% compared with the previous month

In January, Ontario employment climbed for the sixth consecutive month with an increase of 28,800. January saw gains in both full-time (+5,300) and part-time (+23,500) employment, although the majority of the gains came from part-time employment. Compared with December, the provincial unemployment rate in January held steady at 6.4%, as unemployment marginally increased by 5,600. The labour force expanded by 34,300 and the participation rate increased to 65.1% in January from 64.9% in December.

In Canada, employment increased by 48,300 in January which continued two months of employment gains and beat the expected employment decline of 5,000. 1 The gains came from a mix of full-time (15,800) and part-time (32,400) employment. National employment growth in January was driven mainly by gains in Ontario and British Columbia, alongside losses in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. The national unemployment rate in January was down to 6.8% from 6.9% in December.

In the United States, total non-farm payroll employment increased by 227,000 in January, slightly beating the expected 175,000. Employment increased in retail trade, construction, and financial activities.2 The unemployment rate rose to 4.8% in January from 4.7% in December. Over the year, the average hourly earnings increased by 2.5%. In December 2016, the U.S. Federal Reserve raised its benchmark interest rate, suggesting an optimistic economic outlook.3

Between January 2016 and January 2017, employment in Ontario increased by 90,100, with the majority of the gains coming from part-time employment. Year over year, the unemployment rate dropped by 0.3 percentage points to 6.4% from 6.7%, due to a decrease of 18,800 in unemployment. However, the participation rate also dropped by 0.3 percentage points, as the growth in population (+1.3%) continued to outpace the increase in labour force (+1.0%).

The unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 in Ontario increased by 1.4 percentage points to 15.6% in January. Although the participation rate increased by 0.9 percentage points, the employment rate declined by 0.2 percentage points. The youth labour force increased by 14,100, but employment declined by 3,400. Employment losses were felt in full-time employment (-14,500), but offset by gains in part-time employment (11,000). Ontario's youth unemployment rate remained higher than the national youth unemployment rate of 13.3% in January.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted monthly data January 2017 December 2016 January 2016 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,604.3 11,591.4 11,454.5 12.9 0.1 149.8 1.3
Labour force ('000) 7,559.9 7,525.6 7,488.7 34.3 0.5 71.2 1.0
Employment ('000) 7,075.2 7,046.4 6,985.1 28.8 0.4 90.1 1.3
Full-time ('000) 5,695.4 5,690.1 5,689.3 5.3 0.1 6.1 0.1
Part-time ('000) 1,379.8 1,356.3 1,295.8 23.5 1.7 84.0 6.5
Unemployment ('000) 484.8 479.2 503.6 5.6 1.2 -18.8 -3.7
Unemployment rate (%) 6.4 6.4 6.7 0.0 - -0.3 -
Participation rate (%) 65.1 64.9 65.4 0.2 - -0.3 -
Employment rate (%) 61.0 60.8 61.0 0.2 - 0.0 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Monthly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate
Unemployment rate (%) Employment ('000)
January 2015 6.8 6,884.7
February 2015 6.9 6,901.3
March 2015 6.9 6,896.3
April 2015 6.7 6,889.4
May 2015 6.5 6,923.6
June 2015 6.5 6,941.5
July 2015 6.6 6,948.0
August 2015 6.8 6,947.2
September 2015 6.8 6,917.5
October 2015 6.8 6,939.9
November 2015 6.9 6,932.7
December 2015 6.7 6,962.8
January 2016 6.7 6,985.1
February 2016 6.7 6,972.3
March 2016 6.8 6,982.3
April 2016 6.9 6,980.4
May 2016 6.6 7,000.9
June 2016 6.3 7,005.7
July 2016 6.5 6,968.4
August 2016 6.7 6,983.7
September 2016 6.5 7,002.6
October 2016 6.4 7,028.1
November 2016 6.2 7,040.0
December 2016 6.4 7,046.4
January 2017 6.4 7,075.2

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Ontario Monthly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted
data
January 2017
%
December 2016
%
January 2016
%
Monthly variation
(% points)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Total 6.4 6.4 6.7 0.0 -0.3
25 years and over 4.9 5.1 5.6 -0.2 -0.7
Men - 25 years and over 4.7 4.9 5.8 -0.2 -1.1
Women - 25 years and over 5.0 5.3 5.4 -0.3 -0.4
15 to 24 years 15.6 14.2 13.5 1.4 2.1
Men - 15 to 24 years 15.7 14.0 14.9 1.7 0.8
Women - 15 to 24 years 15.5 14.4 12.1 1.1 3.4

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Employment by industry

Manufacturing led employment growth in the goods-producing sector and in the province this month

The goods-producing sector started the year on a positive note with the addition of 18,100 jobs, up 1.3% over the previous month, based on seasonally adjusted employment estimates. This increase was mainly attributed to the addition of 14,000 jobs in manufacturing, the strongest gain reported in the sector since October 2015. During January, softer gains were reported in construction (+3,100) and agriculture (+1,800), while forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas shed 1,300 positions.

Overall, the economic outlook for Ontario's manufacturing sector appears mostly favourable for 2017. The Markit Canada Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index posted four consecutive months of expansions nationally, reflecting strong output, growth in domestic demand, and a continued rise in staffing levels. Challenges cited included long supplier delivery times and a sharp rise in cost inflation due to rising commodity prices and imported raw material costs.Footnote4

Despite strong employment growth of 14,000, mixed news events came out of the manufacturing sector this month, particularly from the key automotive segment. On the positive side, with funding support from the provincial and federal governments, Honda of Canada Manufacturing is investing $492M to upgrade its Alliston facilities,Footnote5 while Nemak of Canada Corporation, in partnership with Arbec Tool & Machine Ltd., will develop new lightweight engine blocks.Footnote6 Meanwhile, General Motors of Canada Company (GM) is planning to cut approximately 600 jobs at its CAMI Assembly Plant in Ingersoll, effective this July. The company cited a changeover in the production of a vehicle model as the reason for the impending layoffs.Footnote7 Earlier in the month, GM announced plans to move production of the redesigned GMC Terrain to Mexico.Footnote8 Canada's total share of motor vehicle production in North America fell from 16.5% in 2005, to 12.8% in 2015, while Mexico's share increased over the same period.Footnote9

In construction, January's employment growth of 3,100 was supported by an increase in building permits and housing starts. Housing starts increased 57.8% in January from a year ago,Footnote10 while residential and non-residential building permits combined increased 33.6% between December 2015 and 2016.Footnote11 In addition, a number of infrastructure announcements is likely to augment employment growth in the coming months. For example, the start of work on the $32.1-million inter-regional transit terminal downtown by the City of Vaughan's future economic hubFootnote12 and continued construction on the Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension line are likely to support industry employment growth.Footnote13 Also, as part of the National Innovation Agenda, large private and public sector investments continue to be rolled out for the construction of academic and research facilities.Footnote14,Footnote15,Footnote16,Footnote17

Year-over-year, employment expanded in the goods-producing sector with the addition of 25,000 jobs (+1.8%), mostly in construction (+30,100) and to a lesser extent in manufacturing (+5,700). Employment declines were observed in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-8,600), and agriculture (-6,500).

Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing led employment growth in the services-producing sector

Employment in the services-producing sector rebounded in January, with the addition of 10,700 jobs (+0.2%). The main contributors to January's employment growth included the finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing (+8,200), health care and social assistance (+7,500), and public administration (+7,100) industries. Employment declined in professional, scientific and technical services (-6,900), as well as in information, culture and recreation (-6,400), and wholesale and retail trade (-5,500).

The finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing industry led employment gains this January in its fourth consecutive month of growth. This is likely related to the GTA's housing market boomFootnote18and favourable fourth-quarter profitability announcements by many of the major banks.Footnote19,Footnote20 In addition, the postelection U.S. equities rally may bode well for the industry.Footnote21 Despite these gains, in the longer term, employment growth may be moderated due to investments made by large banks in digital technologies, and the planned cuts to some branches over the next few years.Footnote22

Meanwhile, business conditions in retail trade experienced some flux, with news of openings and closures by a few large chains across the province. Charm Diamond Centres acquired the former Ben Moss Jewellers banner and will reopen 16 stores, including some in Ontario, averting some of the potential job losses in the sector.Footnote23 On the downside, HMV Canada Inc. was placed into receivership and is expected to close all stores, including the estimated 35 in Ontario by the end of April, resulting from the shift in consumer demand away from CDs and DVDs to digital media.Footnote24 In addition, American Apparel closed its stores after filing for bankruptcy in 2015 and again in last November.Footnote25

Year-over-year, the services producing sector reported employment growth of 65,100 (+1.2%), with health care and social assistance (+30,300) being the largest contributor over the period. Substantial losses were observed in wholesale and retail trade (-22,500).

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) January 2017 December 2016 January 2016 Monthly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 7,075.2 7,046.4 6,985.1 28.8 0.4 90.1 1.3
Goods-producing sector 1,441.4 1,423.3 1,416.4 18.1 1.3 25.0 1.8
Agriculture 73.7 71.9 80.2 1.8 2.5 -6.5 -8.1
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying,
oil and gas
32.9 34.2 41.5 -1.3 -3.8 -8.6 -20.7
Utilities 51.7 51.3 47.5 0.4 0.8 4.2 8.8
Construction 523.4 520.3 493.3 3.1 0.6 30.1 6.1
Manufacturing 759.6 745.6 753.9 14.0 1.9 5.7 0.8
Services-producing sector 5,633.8 5,623.1 5,568.7 10.7 0.2 65.1 1.2
Trade 1,019.4 1,024.9 1,041.9 -5.5 -0.5 -22.5 -2.2
Transportation and warehousing 327.2 324.2 331.6 3.0 0.9 -4.4 -1.3
Finance, insurance, real estate
and leasing
570.5 562.3 553.1 8.2 1.5 17.4 3.1
Professional, scientific
and technical services
599.6 606.5 595.4 -6.9 -1.1 4.2 0.7
Business, building
and other support services
326.9 328.2 325.8 -1.3 -0.4 1.1 0.3
Educational services 501.7 499.8 514.4 1.9 0.4 -12.7 -2.5
Health care and social assistance 858.2 850.7 827.9 7.5 0.9 30.3 3.7
Information, culture and recreation 317.3 323.7 306.0 -6.4 -2.0 11.3 3.7
Accommodation and food services 464.5 459.8 454.1 4.7 1.0 10.4 2.3
Other services 280.0 281.7 272.6 -1.7 -0.6 7.4 2.7
Public administration 368.4 361.3 345.9 7.1 2.0 22.5 6.5

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional analysis

Muskoka–Kawarthas led employment growth in January 2017

The Muskoka–Kawarthas economic region posted the highest gain in employment (31,200)Footnote26 between January 2016 and January 2017. Peterborough has been at the center of the region's news in January with layoffs of 150 employees announced by General ElectricFootnote27 and shutting down of Meyers Transport Ltd operations affecting several jobs in the area.Footnote28 Other sectors in the region may see some gain through investments in local infrastructure,Footnote29 tourism,Footnote30 and business start-ups.Footnote31

Employment in the Kingston–Pembroke economic region grew by 27,000 year-over-year, continuing its trend of employment gains. In addition, the unemployment rate dropped 2.7 percentage points from 6.7% to 4% and labour market participation increased in the region. The region's construction sector is seeing significant investments, particularly in infrastructure development, including $26.8 million in infrastructure investment to replace the Cataraqui Bridge and widen Highway 401Footnote32 and additional upgrades to infrastructure in Frontenac County, Hastings County, Lennox and Addington County, Prince Edward County and Renfrew County.Footnote33In addition, the $20.5 million renovation of the Yardmen Arena in Belleville,Footnote34 and announcement of planned $500 million redevelopment of the Kingston General HospitalFootnote35 is expected to further bolster this sector. The region also received a boost in job creation from the opening of the Shorelines Casino in Belleville which is anticipated to create about 300 jobs.Footnote36

Employment in the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula economic region rose by 21,800 and the unemployment rate fell from 6.9% to 5.7% year-over-year. The construction and retail sectors in the region are supporting job creation. Several construction projects are underway in the region including repairs to the waterfront in Port Dover,Footnote37 renovation of the Aquatic Centre in Ancaster,Footnote38 residential developments in Welland,Footnote39 and renovation of the Opera House in Orillia.Footnote40 In retail, multiple stores are opening in the region including: Lee Valley Tools Ltd. and Footnote41 Niagara Cemetery Memorials in Niagara Falls;Footnote42 Lococo Wholesale Ltd. in Brantford;Footnote43 and Deals Express locations in St. Catharines, Port Colborne, and Niagara Falls. Footnote44

The Toronto economic region posted a modest employment gain of 3,300 (+0.1%) year-over-year, and the unemployment rate fell 0.2 percentage points to 6.5% in January 2017. The retail sector in the region saw some losses mainly from the announced closures of HMV stores,Footnote45 Grafton-Fraser Inc. owned chains,Footnote46 and closure of Williams Sonoma's Bloor Street location.Footnote47 Amid these losses, the sector is continuing to attract investments with a number of luxury retail locations opening in the coming months.Footnote48,Footnote49,Footnote50,Footnote51,Footnote52 Substantial increase in Toronto housing starts in January 2017 compared to last year,Footnote53 new redevelopment projects,Footnote54 and new transit projectsFootnote55 continue to bolster the construction industry in the region.

Although the Northeast economic region posted a marginal employment gain (+900) year-over-year, the region received positive employment news: Millennium Process Group Inc. announced plans to establish a contact centre in Sudbury, with over 250 employees;Footnote56 and Canada Revenue Agency announced plans to hire 650 employees for a tax-returns processing centre in Sudbury.Footnote57,Footnote58

Employment also grew in the Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Ottawa, and Windsor–Sarnia economic regions.

Employment declined in three economic regions

The Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie region posted the largest employment loss (-20,500) between January 2016 and January 2017. The unemployment rate, though, held steady at 5.2% due to a decrease in labour force participation. The regional manufacturing base was affected by the closure of Midland's General Mills plant in JanuaryFootnote59 and layoffs at CCL Industries Inc. facility in Penetanguishene.Footnote60 However, the sector will be bolstered through new investments including $492 million investment by Honda of Canada Manufacturing in its Alliston facility and Footnote61 $8.7 million investment by Guelph Manufacturing to expand its manufacturing capabilities.Footnote62 The construction sector in the region is receiving a significant boost particularly through infrastructure investments in several post-secondary institutions including $30 million in Georgian College,Footnote63 $30.69 million in Wilfred Laurier University,Footnote64 and $88 million in University of Waterloo.Footnote65 In addition, other infrastructure projects such as $4.6 million redevelopment of Penetanguishene's Main StreetFootnote66 and $96 million investment in widening Highway 401Footnote67 will further support the sector in this region.

Employment fell in the London economic region by 5,900 year-over-year with declines being observed since the second quarter of 2016. The unemployment rate rose from 5% in January 2016 to 5.5% in January 2017. The automobile manufacturing sector in the region will experience significant changes in the coming months in relation to both job gains and losses. Some employment gains are expected from Armo-Tool's $7.6M expansion of its London facility creating 15 jobsFootnote68 as well as the addition of 40 employees in January by GM at its Cami Automotive Inc. assembly plant in Ingersoll.Footnote69However, these gains will be offset when GM cuts 625 jobs at its Cami Automotive Inc. assembly plant in July 2017.Footnote70 Recent investments in other areas of manufacturing in the region are expected to create some jobs this year including Hanwha L&C adding a new production line which is expected to create about 85 jobs,Footnote71 Cross Country Manufacturing expanding its Bleinheim facility which is expected to create 100 jobs,Footnote72 and Diamond Aircraft expecting to add 50-150 jobs in the coming months.Footnote73 There is some cause for optimism in the construction sector with London posting almost five times as many housing starts in January 2017 as compared to January 2016Footnote74 and the construction of a new office building as part of the London Roundhouse project.Footnote75

Over the year, the Northwest economic region posted an employment loss of 500 and an increase in the unemployment rate from 6.1% to 6.3% between January 2016 and January 2017. Labour force participation also fell slightly, from 61.9% to 61.3%. However, some employment is expected to be generated through new investments in public transit in Thunder Bay,Footnote76 and hiring in the public administration sector including in Veterans Affairs CanadaFootnote77 and Nishnawbe Aski Police Service.Footnote78

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
3-month moving averages
seasonally unadjusted data
Employment Unemployment rate
January 2017
('000)
January 2016
('000)
Yearly variation
(%)
January 2017
(%)
January 2016
(%)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Ontario 7,018.6 6,919.2 1.4 6.0 6.4 -0.4
Economic regions
Ottawa 703.9 681.7 3.3 5.1 5.9 -0.8
Kingston--Pembroke 222.7 195.7 13.8 4.0 6.7 -2.7
Muskoka--Kawarthas 187.9 156.7 19.9 5.2 5.1 0.1
Toronto 3,366.5 3,363.2 0.1 6.5 6.7 -0.2
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barrie 695.3 715.8 -2.9 5.2 5.2 0.0
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 732.8 711.0 3.1 5.7 6.9 -1.2
London 324.0 329.9 -1.8 5.5 5.0 0.5
Windsor--Sarnia 295.2 286.5 3.0 5.8 8.1 -2.3
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 150.9 139.6 8.1 5.2 5.7 -0.5
Northeast 240.4 239.5 0.4 7.1 7.6 -0.5
Northwest 99.0 99.5 -0.5 6.3 6.1 0.2

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Trading Economics. (2016, November 4). Canada Employment Change. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/canada/employment-change

Return to Footnote 1

Footnote 2

Trading Economics. (2017, February 3). U.S.Non-Farm Payrolls. Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/non-farm-payrolls

Return to Footnote 2

Footnote 3

CBC News Staff. (2016, December 14). Federal Reserve hikes benchmark interest rate to 0.75%. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/federal-reserve-interest-rate-1.3896402

Return to Footnote 3

Footnote 4

IHS Markit. (2017, February 1). Markit Canada Manufacturing PMI. IHS Markit. Retrieved from: https://www.markiteconomics.com/Survey/PressRelease.mvc/277574d658144e30b5ff86e272064f75

Return to Footnote 4

Footnote 5

Government of Canada. (2017, January 9). Government of Canada invests $41.8 million in Honda of Canada Manufacturing to maintain middle-class jobs and develop clean technologies. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=4&nid=1177019

Return to Footnote 5

Footnote 6

Government of Canada. (2017, January 10). Windsor company receives $3 million to develop new automotive technologies. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=3&nid=1177389

Return to Footnote 6

Footnote 7

Keenan, G. (2017, January 27). GM to cut 625 jobs at Ontario plant, union says. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: : http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/gm-to-cut-as-many-as-600-jobs-in-southwestern-ontario-union-says/article33794522

Return to Footnote 7

Footnote 8

Welch, D. (2017, January 9). GM to move production of GMC Terrain from Ingersoll to Mexico. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/7057068-gm-to-move-production-of-gmc-terrain-from-ingersoll-to-mexico/

Return to Footnote 8

Footnote 9

DesRosiers Automotive Consultants Inc. (2016 Edition). DesRosiers Automotive Yearbook.

Return to Footnote 9

Footnote 10

Statistics Canada. (2017, February 13). CANSIM Table 027-0054, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, all areas, Canada and provinces, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, monthly (units x 1,000). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0270054&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

Return to Footnote 10

Footnote 11

Statistics Canada. (2017, February 13). CANSIM Table 026-0003, Building permits, values by activity sector, monthly (dollars x 1,000). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=0260003&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

Return to Footnote 11

Footnote 12

Government of Canada. (2017, January 11). Bus terminal to be built in Vaughan for York Region Transit. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=5&nid=1177999

Return to Footnote 12

Footnote 13

Spurr, B. (2017, January 23). TTC's newest subway extension taking shape. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/01/23/ttcs-newest-subway-extension-taking-shape.html

Return to Footnote 13

Footnote 14

Government of Canada. (2017, January 9). Canada and Ontario invest in infrastructure at Georgian College. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=5&nid=1176589

Return to Footnote 14

Footnote 15

Government of Canada. (2017, January 12). Canada and Ontario invest in infrastructure at Wilfrid Laurier University. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: : http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1178389&_ga=1.17737465.1560703.1437082960

Return to Footnote 15

Footnote 16

Government of Canada. (2017, January 12). Canada and Ontario invest in infrastructure at University of Windsor. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=2&nid=1178279&_ga=1.257401419.1560703.1437082960

Return to Footnote 16

Footnote 17

Government of Canada. (2017, January 12). Government of Canada invests in infrastructure at the University of Waterloo. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=3&nid=1178429

Return to Footnote 17

Footnote 18

Jang, Brent. (2017, January 16). 2016 was a record-setting year for Canada's housing market. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/2016-was-a-record-setting-year-for-canadas-housing-market/article33640396/

Return to Footnote 18

Footnote 19

Shecter, Barbara. (2016, December 6). Canadian banks get a credit upgrade as BMO earnings jump 11 per cent to cap strong year. The Financial Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/news/fp-street/fitch-upgrades-canadian-bank-outlook-despite-expected-economic-and-housing-headwinds

Return to Footnote 19

Footnote 20

The Canadian Press. (2016, December 1). CIBC profit up 20%, TD up 25% as bank earnings stay strong. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/cibc-td-bank-earnings-1.3875980

Return to Footnote 20

Footnote 21

Shufelt , Tim. (2016, December 5). Postelection rally in U.S. equities is just getting started: RBC. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/inside-the-market/postelection-rally-in-us-equities-just-getting-started/article33211014/

Return to Footnote 21

Footnote 22

Globe and Mail Staff. (2017, February 1). Scotiabank targets further cost cuts from digital initiatives. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/scotiabank-targets-further-cost-cuts-from-digital-initiatives/article33874797/

Return to Footnote 22

Footnote 23

The Canadian Press. (2017, January 12). Ben Moss Jewellers acquired by Charm Diamond Centres, 16 stores to reopen. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://www.ctvnews.ca/business/ben-moss-jewellers-acquired-by-charm-diamond-centres-16-stores-to-reopen-1.3238938

Return to Footnote 23

Footnote 24

Canadian Press Staff. (2017, January 27). Struggling HMV Canada goes into receivership, set to close stores. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/struggling-hmv-canada-goes-into-receivership-set-to-close-stores-1.3956302

Return to Footnote 24

Footnote 25

Agnew, Caitlin. (2017, January 18). So long, American Apparel – you won't be forgotten. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: : http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/fashion-and-beauty/fashion/so-long-american-apparel-you-wont-be-forgotten/article33660259/

Return to Footnote 25

Footnote 26

Measured on a year-over-year seasonally unadjusted basis.

Return to Footnote 26

Footnote 27

Torstar News Service. (2017, January 17). General Electric Peterborough laying off 150 workers. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/01/17/general-electric-peterborough-laying-off-150-workers.html

Return to Footnote 27

Footnote 28

Zajac, R. (2017, January 9). Meyers Transport shutting down: Trucking firm has branch in Peterborough. The Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2017/01/09/meyers-transport-shutting-down-trucking-firm-has-branch-in-peterborough

Return to Footnote 28

Footnote 29

Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs. (2017, January 16). Ontario improving roads and bridges in Eastern Ontario Communities. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2017/01/ontario-improving-roads-and-bridges-in-eastern-ontario-communities.html

Return to Footnote 29

Footnote 30

Banner, G. (2017, January 23). Plans moving ahead to bring airline to Muskoka this summer. MuskokaRegion.com. Retrieved from: http://www.muskokaregion.com/news-story/7080489-plans-moving-ahead-to-bring-airline-to-muskoka-this-summer/

Return to Footnote 30

Footnote 31

Innovation Cluster Admin. (2017, January 31). The City of Peterborough comes on as a major funding partner. Greater Peterborough Innovation Cluster. Retrieved from: http://www.innovationcluster.ca/2017/01/city-peterborough-comes-major-funding-partner/

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Footnote 32

Ministry of Transportation. (2017, January 19). Ontario Replacing Bridge and Widening Highway 401 in Kingston. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2017/01/ontario-replacing-bridge-and-widening-highway-401-in-kingston.html

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Footnote 33

Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs. (2017, January 16). Ontario improving roads and bridges in Eastern Ontario Communities. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2017/01/ontario-improving-roads-and-bridges-in-eastern-ontario-communities.html

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Footnote 34

Belleville News. (2016, December 27). Yardmen Arena renovations well underway, as city gets ready for Belleville Senators. InsideBelleville.com. Retrieved from: http://www.insidebelleville.com/news-story/7038474-yardmen-arena-renovations-well-underway-as-city-gets-ready-for-belleville-senators/

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Footnote 35

MacAlpine, I. (2017, January 24). KGH planning $500 million redevelopment. Thewhig.com. Retrieved from: http://www.thewhig.com/2017/01/24/kgh-planning-500-million-redevelopment

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Footnote 36

Miller, T. (2016, April 27). Casino Breaks Ground. The Intelligencer. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2016/04/27/casino-breaks-ground

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Footnote 37

Sonnenberg, M. (2017, January 4). DFO commissions $1.4 million in repairs. Simcoe Reformer. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoereformer.ca/2017/01/04/dfo-commissions-14-million-in-repairs

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Footnote 38

Werner, K. (2017, January 4). Ancaster Aquatic Centre's upgrades will transform into a "new facility," says councillor. Ancaster News. Retrieved from: http://www.hamiltonnews.com/news-story/7049718-ancaster-aquatic-centre-s-upgrades-will-transform-it-into-a-new-facility-says-councillor/

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Footnote 39

Benner, A. (2017, January 5). Construction underway at Memorial Park Subdivision. The Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.niagarafallsreview.ca/2017/01/05/construction-underway-at-memorial-park-subdivision

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Footnote 40

Bales, P. (2017, January 13). $1.5M in funding for Orillia Opera House. The Orillia Packet and Times. Retrieved from: http://www.orilliapacket.com/2017/01/13/15m-in-funding-for-orillia-opera-house

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Footnote 41

Niagara Falls Review. (2017, January 17). Lee Valley coming to Niagara Falls. Niagara Falls Review. Retrieved from: http://www.niagarafallsreview.ca/2017/01/17/lee-valley-coming-to-niagara-falls

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Footnote 42

Spiteri, R. (2017, January 18). Monuments showcase business opens in Falls. Niagara Falls Review. Retrieved from: http://www.niagarafallsreview.ca/2017/01/18/monuments-showcase-business-opens-in-falls

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Footnote 43

Marion, A. (2017, January 24). Lococo's sees 'big opportunity' in city. Brantford Expositor. Retrieved from: http://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/2017/01/24/lococos-sees-big-opportunity-in-city

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Footnote 44

Niagara This Week. (2017, January 17). New liquidation stores open in Niagara. Niagara This Week. Retrieved from: http://www.niagarathisweek.com/news-story/7084807-new-liquidation-stores-open-up-in-niagara/

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Footnote 45

Hong, J. (2017, January 27). HMV in receivership, stores to close by Apr 30. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/music/2017/01/27/hmv-in-receivership-stores-to-close-by-apr-30.html

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Footnote 46

The Canadian Press. (2017, January 26). Tip Top Tailors owner granted temporary protection amid cash crunch. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2017/01/26/tip-top-tailors-owner-granted-temporary-protection-amid-cash-crunch.html

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Footnote 47

Retail Insider. (2017, January 19). Williams Sonoma Exits Mink Mile Ahead of Hermes Relocation. Retail-Insider.com. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2017/1/williams-sonoma-hermes

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Footnote 48

Insauga. (2017, January 10). New Nordstrom Rack Opening in Mississauga. Insauga.com. Retrieved from: https://www.insauga.com/new-nordstrom-rack-opening-in-mississauga

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Footnote 49

Retail Insider. (2017, January 19). Mink Mile Colonnade Sees New and Expanded Luxury Retailers. Retail-Insider.com. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2017/1/colonnade

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Footnote 50

Retail Insider. (2017, January 2). Van Cleef & Arpels to open 1st Freestanding Toronto Store. Retail-Insider.com. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/12/van-cleef-arpels-yorkdale-toronto

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Footnote 51

CNW. (2017, January 9). Raffi Jewellers Inaugurates New Rolex Boutique in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. The Province. Retrieved from: http://www.theprovince.com/business/cnw/release.html?rkey=20170109C1665&filter=4007

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Footnote 52

Retail Insider. (2016, November 22). Richemont Launches Canadian Luxury Boutique. Retail-Insider.com. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/11/richemont

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Footnote 53

Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2017, February 8). Preliminary Housing Start Data. CMHC-SCHL. Retrieved from: https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/catalog/productDetail.cfm?cat=58&itm=1&lang=en&fr=1486678682855

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Footnote 54

Dmitrieva, K. (2017, January 23). 'The real estate market is so hot right now': RioCan CEO plots 2017 Toronto projects as home demand spikes. Financial Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/news/property-post/riocan-ceo-plots-2017-toronto-projects-as-home-demand-spikes

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Footnote 55

Transport Canada. (2017, January 11). Bus Terminal to be built in Vaughan for York Region Transit. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do;jsessionid=dd447c8f837002dafcc1d86466b5bb2800387a1dbf9c591fd81a19be31867d49.e38RbhaLb3qNe3eOa310?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1177999

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Footnote 56

Keown, M. (2017, January 13). Good news for Sudbury on jobs front. The Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thesudburystar.com/2017/01/13/good-news-for-sudbury-on-jobs-front

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Footnote 57

The Sudbury Star. (2016, November 18). CRA to add 543 jobs in Sudbury. The Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: : http://www.thesudburystar.com/2016/11/18/cra-to-add-543-in-sudbury

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Footnote 58

Postmedia Network. (2017, January 21). Move to Sudbury, taxation workers are told. The Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: : http://www.thesudburystar.com/2017/01/21/move-to-sudbury-taxation-workers-are-told

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Footnote 59

Ward, A. (2017, January 27). End of an era: General Mills closes in Midland. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://barrie.ctvnews.ca/end-of-an-era-general-mills-closes-in-midland-1.3260039

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Footnote 60

Burns, I. (2016, December 1). End is near for CCL containers in Penetanguishene. Midland Mirror. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6994959-end-is-near-for-ccl-containers-in-penetanguishene/

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Footnote 61

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2017, January 9). Government of Canada invests $41.8 million in Honda of Canada Manufacturing to maintain middle class jobs and maintain clean technologies. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=4&nid=1177019

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Footnote 62

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2017, January 27). Ontario Investing in Manufacturing in Guelph. Ontario.ca Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2017/01/ontario-investing-in-manufacturing-in-guelph.html

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Footnote 63

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2017, January 9). Canada and Ontario invest in infrastructure at Georgian College. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=5&nid=1176589

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Footnote 64

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2017, January 12). Canada and Ontario invest in Infrastructure at Wilfred Laurier University. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1178389&_ga=1.17737465.1560703.1437082960

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Footnote 65

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2017, January 12). Government of Canada invests in infrastructure at the University of Waterloo. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=3&nid=1178429

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Footnote 66

Burns, I. (2017, January 3). Penetanguishene embarking on major redevelopment of Main Street in 2017. Simcoe.com. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/7022526-penetanguishene-embarking-on-major-redevelopment-of-main-street-in-2017/

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Footnote 67

Infrastructure Canada. (2017, January 27). Highway 401 widening to improve safety and traffic flow for Ontario residents. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1182839&_ga=1.250055622.1560703.1437082960

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Footnote 68

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2017, January 25). Strengthening Auto Sector Manufacturing in London. Ontario.ca. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2017/01/strengthening-auto-sector-manufacturing-in-london.html

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Footnote 69

Stacey, M. (2017, January 12). GM Cami Assembly plant in Ingersoll starts building next generation Chevrolet Equinox and plans for phase out of GMC Terrain as production of its new model moves to Mexico. Ingersoll Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ingersolltimes.com/2017/01/12/gm-cami-assembly-plant-in-ingersoll-starts-building-next-generation-chevrolet-equinox-and-plans-for-phase-out-of-gmc-terrain-as-production-of-its-new-model-moves-to-mexico

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Footnote 70

Keenan, G. (2017, January 27). GM to cut 625 jobs at Ontario plant, union says. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/gm-to-cut-as-many-as-600-jobs-in-southwestern-ontario-union-says/article33794522/

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Footnote 71

Daniszewski, H. (2016, November 25). Hanwha countertop plant in London doubling production capacity, adding jobs. The London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/11/25/hanwha-countertop-plant-in-london-doubling-production-capacity-adding-jobs

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Footnote 72

Canadian Manufacturing. (2016, October 13). Trailer maker Cross Country investing $5.5M in Ontario plant expansion. Canadianmanufacturing.com. Retrieved from: http://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/manufacturing/trailer-maker-cross-country-manufacturing-investing-5-5m-in-ontario-plant-177113/

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Footnote 73

Swartz, K. (2016, December 22). Diamond Canada poised for growth. Skies Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.skiesmag.com/news/diamond-canada-poised-growth/

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Footnote 74

Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2017, February 8). Preliminary Housing Start Data. CMHC-SCHL. Retrieved from: https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/catalog/productDetail.cfm?cat=58&itm=1&lang=en&fr=1486678682855

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Footnote 75

Daniszewski, H. (2017, January 29). A new office building is under construction that will expand the Horton Street tech corridor. The London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2017/01/28/a-new-office-building-is-under-construction-that-will-expand-the-horton-street-tech-corridor

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Footnote 76

Infrastructure Canada. (2017, January 16). Governments of Canada and Ontario invest in public transit in Thunder Bay. Market Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/governments-of-canada-and-ontario-invest-in-public-transit-in-thunder-bay-2188591.htm

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Footnote 77

Veterans Affairs Canada. (2017, January 26). Veterans Affairs Canada office reopens in Thunder Bay. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=index&crtr.page=2&nid=1181369

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Footnote 78

CKDR. (2017, January 2). NAPS Welcoming New Officers. CKDR.net. Retrieved from: http://www.ckdr.net/news/1635242395/naps-welcoming-new-officersd

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