Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: 2016 (Annual Edition)

The Annual Edition of the Labour Market Bulletin is a look back over the past year, providing an analysis of annual Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.

OVERVIEW

Labour Force Trends–Ontario employment rose in 2016 for the seventh consecutive year

  • Employment in Ontario went up by 76,400 in 2016, after an increase of 45,300 in 2015
  • Full–time work (+54,400) observed gains for seven consecutive years, while part–time work rebounded (+22,000) after a decrease the previous year
  • The unemployment rate decreased for the fourth consecutive year, falling by 0.3 percentage points to 6.5%

Ontario marked its seventh consecutive yearly increase in employment with gains of 76,400 (+1.1%) in 2016. Increases occurred in both full–time (+54,400; +1.0%) and part–time (+22,000; +1.7%) employment, with part-time work recovering in strength after a 2.5% decline in 2015.

The provincial labour market showed signs of strength all around, with the unemployment rate falling by 0.3 percentage points to 6.5%, falling below the unemployment rate in 2008 (6.6%) for the first time. Unemployment fell by 13,000 (-2.6%), declining for the fourth consecutive year, while the youth unemployment rate fell to 14.0%. However, there was a slight decrease in both the Ontario participation rate and employment rate, similarly to 2015, as gains in the provincial labour force and employment figures was weaker than growth in the overall working–age population.

The Ontario labour market is expected to sustain its momentum in 2017, as the province continues to lead the way in economic growth within Canada, with analysts’ consensus forecasts estimating Ontario’s economy to grow by 2.3% in 2017. Employment in Ontario is projected to grow by 1.2% in 2017, as improvements in household retail spending and domestic demand is supported by increasing export activity from the province. The provincial unemployment rate is expected to remain relatively stable, averaging 6.5% in 2017.

For Canada as a whole, employment rose by 133,300 (+0.7%) in 2016, with gains in part-time employment (+80,400; +2.4%) outshining full-time employment (+52,900; +0.4%). However, the employment rate fell by 0.2 percentage points to 61.1%, as an expanding labour force did not translate to a greater share of the workforce finding employment. In addition, unemployment (+29,200; +2.2%) increased for the second year in a row, leading to a 0.1 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate, which reached 7.0% in 2016. The western provinces were hard-hit, in particular, with Alberta’s unemployment rate rising from 4.7% in 2014 to 8.1% in 2016. Looking forward, however, Canada’s economy is expected to grow by 2.0% in 2017, with the unemployment rate expected to drop slightly to 6.8%.

The labour market in the United States continued its strong performance, with an increase of 2.5 million (+1.8%) in total non-farm payroll employment in 2016, which followed gains of 2.9 million (+2.1%) in 2015. The federal unemployment rate fell to 4.9% in 2016, from 5.3% in 2015, with the U.S. Federal Reserve placing stronger faith in the American economy with an increase in interest rates in December 2016. With a likely shift in focus to greater infrastructure stimulus and tax cuts over the coming year, the federal unemployment rate is expected to drop slightly to 4.8% in 2017.

Ontario Annual Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally unadjusted data Year 2015 to 2016 2014 to 2015
2016 2015 2014 Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,523.4 11,385.6 11,269.3 137.8 1.2 116.3 1.0
Labour force ('000) 7,489.5 7,426.1 7,418.6 63.4 0.9 7.5 0.1
Employment ('000) 6,999.6 6,923.2 6,877.9 76.4 1.1 45.3 0.7
Full-time ('000) 5,672.6 5,618.2 5,540.0 54.4 1.0 78.2 1.4
Part-time ('000) 1,327.0 1,305.0 1,337.9 22.0 1.7 -32.9 -2.5
Unemployment ('000) 489.9 502.9 540.7 -13.0 -2.6 -37.8 -7.0
Unemployment rate (%) 6.5 6.8 7.3 -0.3 - -0.5 -
Participation rate (%) 65.0 65.2 65.8 -0.2 - -0.6 -
Employment rate (%) 60.7 60.8 61.0 -0.1 - -0.2 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0002

Annual Employment and Unemployment Rate, for Ontario
Annual employment and unemployment rate, for Ontario. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Annual employment and unemployment rate, for Ontario
Annual Employment and Unemployment Rate, for Ontario
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Employment ('000) 6,537.8 6,658.4 6,702.6 6,823.4 6,877.9 6,923.2
Unemployment rate (%) 8.7 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.3 6.8
Annual Employment Growth, for Ontario
Annual employment growth, for Ontario. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Annual employment growth, for Ontario Annual employment growth, for Ontario
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Ontario 1.6% 1.8% 0.7% 1.8% 0.8% 0.7%
Canada 1.4% 1.5% 1.3% 1.5% 0.6% 0.8%
Annual Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age, for Ontario
Seasonally Adjusted data 2016
%
2015
%
2014
%
2015 to 2016
(% points)
2014 to 2015
(% points)
Total 6.5 6.8 7.3 -0.3 -0.5
25 years and over 5.3 5.4 5.8 -0.1 -0.4
Men - 25 years and over 5.4 5.5 5.9 -0.1 -0.4
Women - 25 years and over 5.2 5.3 5.6 -0.1 -0.3
15 to 24 years 14.0 14.7 15.7 -0.7 -1.0
Men - 15 to 24 years 15.5 16.3 16.7 -0.8 -0.4
Women - 15 to 24 years 12.5 13.1 14.7 -0.6 -1.6

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0002

EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY

Construction led employment growth in Ontario’s goods-producing sector

Employment increased in the goods-producing sector for a second consecutive year, with gains of 16,700 (+1.2%) in 2016. The construction industry had the sharpest growth in employment among all industries in Ontario over the year, with an increase of 16,400 (+3.4%). The residential segment of the industry remained buoyant, with housing starts in Ontario increasing 9% on an annualized basis in 2016.1 The value of building permits also rose for the province in 2016, on the strength of the residential and commercial sectors.2

A high number of infrastructure and institutional projects also progressed across the province, reflecting the federal and provincial governments’ strong emphasis on modernizing infrastructure.3 The construction of the $5.3B Eglinton Crosstown Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line began in earnest in March, with work starting on the Keelesdale Station, the first of 25 stations across Toronto.4 Progress continued on the City of Ottawa’s Confederation LRT Line Stage 1, with more provincial support announced for Stage 2 of the project,5 while other major transit projects are under way across the province. Some notable projects in the institutional sector which commenced in 2016 include the 342-bed Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital,6 part of an investment of $12 billion over 10 years from the provincial government to build upon the health care infrastructure and build new major hospitals,7 and a renewed focus on new elementary and secondary schools across Ontario with a commitment of $1.1 billion from the Ontario government.8,9,10 With respect to utilities-related infrastructure, the $12.8B refurbishment of four nuclear reactors at the OPG Darlington Generating Station east of Toronto commenced in October, with the project expected to last over a decade,11 while the Government of Canada announced $267.5M in infrastructure investments along the Trent-Severn Waterway in central Ontario.12

Employment increased in Ontario manufacturing (+6,800; +0.9%) in 2016 for the first time after three consecutive years of declines. This growth was strongly influenced by gains made in the motor vehicles and parts sub-sector, one of the largest manufacturing segments in the province.13 Consumer spending on durable goods trended above previous years,14 and supported favourable sales in big-ticket items such as motor vehicles and car parts, and furthermore, a stronger United States economy helped to boost demand in the sub-sector. The auto industry in the province continued to grow as, with provincial support,15 FCA Canada Inc. announced the hiring of 1,200 workers at its Windsor Assembly Plant to build the industry’s first plug-in hybrid electric minivan.16 The company also released plans to invest $325M to upgrade the paint shop at its Brampton facility.17 Ford Motor Company of Canada Limited extended the production of its GT supercar, which is built at Multimatic Inc., an auto components company in Markham, from two years to four due to high demand.18 Ford will also invest about $613M to prepare for a new engine program at its Windsor and Essex Engine Plants, creating about 500 jobs.19In addition, auto parts manufacturer FIO Automotive Canada Corp., a subsidiary of Futaba Industrial Co. Ltd., will undergo a $50M expansion of its facility in Stratford.20Several other automotive suppliers across Ontario also benefitted from federal21and provincial22 funding support to advance innovation through the supply chain.

Meanwhile, General Motors of Canada Company Ltd. is extending production at its Oshawa Assembly Plant beyond 2019, and investing $400M in the facility.23 GM also is planning to add 1,000 new software and engineering jobs in various research and development teams at its engineering centre in Oshawa,24 and undertook additional recruitment at its CAMI Assembly Plant in Ingersoll.25However, some of the job gains in this plant may be offset by the impending layoff of approximately 600 workers in July 2017, with the company citing a changeover in the production of a vehicle model as the reason for the impending layoffs,26 as production of the redesigned GM Terrain will move to Mexico in 2017.27 Canada’s total share of light motor vehicle production in North America fell from 14.6% in December 2015 to 13.2% in December 2016, while Mexico’s share increased over the same period.28 In other auto-related developments, interior supplier Johnson Controls Inc. announced the closure of a plant in Whitby, affecting more than 200 employees,29 while Bombardier announced in February that it will lay off 430 employees in Ontario.30

Economic uncertainty in the commodities and resources sectors led to some layoffs in manufacturing. As a result of lower capital investments and less orders for new equipment, Hitachi Construction Truck Manufacturing Ltd. laid off 129 full-time production workers at its Guelph facility, although the company hopes to recall some of these workers in 201731, 32. Similarly, lower oil prices and less demand for oil tankers contributed to a layoff of over 400 workers at National Steel Car Ltd. in Hamilton33, 34. However, there were more positive news in late-2016 as, stemming from a globally agreed cut in production, oil prices began to increase, resulting in more rig-drilling activities in the western provinces35. This helped spur Tenaris Algoma Tubes Inc. in Sault Ste. Marie to recall about 120 employees to support the company's drilling rig manufacturing36.

Employment growth in services-producing sector driven by finance and insurance, as well as health care and social assistance

Employment in the services-producing sector continued its upward growth trajectory with the addition of 59,700 (+1.1%) in employment in 2016. The health care and social assistance industry was the largest contributor to the job gains in the services sector, with an increase of 25,900 (+3.2%)37. Population growth and ageing, and the shift in emphasis in the provincial health care model towards outpatient and rehabilitative care38, are factors driving employment growth in this segment. Contributing to the industry's future growth are a $13.6M project to increase the surgical capacity at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario39, and a large $12B investment in Ontario hospital infrastructure40, as well as smaller investments in local mental health services 41and in retirement facilities42, 43, 44. Despite the overall growth in the industry, budgetary considerations led to the elimination of some positions at the Windsor Regional Hospital45 and St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton.46

The finance and insurance industry also maintained its momentum alongside reports of strong banking revenues and returns in 201647. However, technological shifts in the industry, mainly due to the growing use of online banking and the adaptation of other digital features, led to a number of restructuring and layoff announcements, including job cuts by the Bank of Montreal48 and TMX Group Ltd., operator of the Toronto Stock Exchange49. The industry also saw the influx of many financial technology (FinTech) start-up companies, which are becoming integral to technological innovations in the industry50.

Internet penetration and digitization are having mixed effects in the information and cultural industry, prompting strong employment growth in areas such as software publishing, but contributing to job losses51 and weaker revenues in traditional media. A number of layoffs were announced in broadcast media, newspaper publishers and related activities, including by Postmedia Network Canada Corp.,52 Rogers Media Inc.,53 and Torstar Corp.'s newspaper printing plant.54 In contrast, employment in the motion picture and video sub-industry grew over the year, with significant activity in the Toronto55 and Northeast regions,56 spurred partly by provincial and federal tax incentives are helping to boost growth in the sector.57 One major development in the transportation and warehousing industry was the opening of an Amazon.com robotic distribution centre, creating more than 500 full-time jobs,58 while the expansion of GoodLife Fitness Centres was a major development in the recreation sub-industry, adding 600 jobs in Ontario over the year,59 though there were layoffs of 285 positions later in 2016.60

The retail trade sector experienced a fair amount of instability, with some segments continuing to lose bricks and mortar operations due to factors such as the prevalence of online shopping and fierce international competition.61 In the clothing sector, closures by Le Château,62 Aéropostale, Inc.,63 and Jones New York64 were among the most significant news over the year, resulting in the loss of several hundred jobs, while Ben Moss Jewellers announced the closure of all its locations, including 19 in Ontario.65 However, notable investments were made by other types of retailers, including by Walmart Canada,66, 67 while expansion plans were also announced by IKEA68, and by Loblaw Companies Limited, with a $1.3B investment in its retail business across Canada.69 One of the bigger new entrants, fashion retailer Nordstrom, Inc., opened stores in Toronto's Eaton Centre and Yorkdale Shopping Centre this year.70

Ontario Annual Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Employment ('000) Year 2015 to 2016 2014 to 2015
2016 2015 2014 Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 6,999.6 6,923.2 6,877.9 76.4 1.1 45.3 0.7
Goods-producing sector 1,418.1 1,401.4 1,382.0 16.7 1.2 19.4 1.4
Agriculture 77.7 76.9 81.8 0.8 1.0 -4.9 -6.0
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 35.8 43.3 33.2 -7.5 -17.3 10.1 30.4
Utilities 49.5 49.4 51.1 0.1 0.2 -1.7 -3.3
Construction 503.7 487.3 467.3 16.4 3.4 20.0 4.3
Manufacturing 751.4 744.6 748.6 6.8 0.9 -4.0 -0.5
Services-producing sector 5,581.4 5,521.7 5,495.9 59.7 1.1 25.8 0.5
Trade 1,033.2 1,042.3 1,047.0 -9.1 -0.9 -4.7 -0.4
Transportation and warehousing 327.2 321.3 329.0 5.9 1.8 -7.7 -2.3
Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 555.3 543.5 512.1 11.8 2.2 31.4 6.1
Professional, scientific and technical services 594.6 579.6 559.9 15.0 2.6 19.7 3.5
Business, building and other support services 326.1 333.4 334.7 -7.3 -2.2 -1.3 -0.4
Educational services 502.8 514.9 494.6 -12.1 -2.3 20.3 4.1
Health care and social assistance 838.4 812.5 798.2 25.9 3.2 14.3 1.8
Information, culture and recreation 318.0 309.5 316.5 8.5 2.7 -7.0 -2.2
Accommodation and food services 456.8 444.3 450.3 12.5 2.8 -6.0 -1.3
Other services 276.1 276.3 286.8 -0.2 -0.1 -10.5 -3.7
Public administration 353.0 344.0 366.8 9.0 2.6 -22.8 -6.2

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0008

REGIONAL ANALYSIS

Employment gains posted in nine of eleven economic regions in 2016

Ontario's various regional labour markets were generally healthy over the past year, as nine out of eleven economic regions across the province registered employment growths in 2016.

Employment in the Toronto economic region grew by 52,800 (+1.6%) from 2015 to 2016. Gains were realized in both full-time and part-time work, driving the unemployment rate down from 7.1% to 6.9%. The manufacturing and construction industries were strong performers for the goods-producing sector. Aircraft parts manufacturer Cyclone Manufacturing Inc.71 and medical devices manufacturer Baylis Medical Company72 have both announced expansion projects, which should lead to sizeable job creation in the Toronto region. However, the industry was hit by the closure of the Toronto Star printing plant in Vaughan73 and the closing of the Whitby plant for auto parts manufacturer Johnson Controls Inc.74 The regional construction industry also contributed to employment growth, despite a lower number of building permits issued in 2016.75 A number of large-scale construction projects were in the news over the year, including the $5.3B Eglinton Crosstown Light Rail Transit project,76 Woodbine Racetrack's $50M expansion,77 and Medallion Corporation's $300M mixed use development project in Ajax.78

The finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing industry led the services-producing sector in employment growth in the Toronto region, although the industry observed a number of layoff announcements during the year, including the loss of 115 jobs at TMX Group Ltd,79 operator of the Toronto Stock Exchange. The educational services industry felt the largest employment loss in the region, partly due to declining school enrollments.80 As such, the Toronto District School Board announced in early 2016 that it will cut 102 teachers, 45 early childhood educators and 46 lunchroom supervisors in the fall, as enrolment has declined over the year.81

The Kingston–Pembroke economic region also saw healthy labour market growth in 2016, as employment grew by 11,500 (+5.7%). Labour force participation also rose, and the regional unemployment rate fell from 7.2% to 6.0%. Growth in the region was spread across industries, with Feihe International Inc., a China-based manufacturer of infant formula, announcing that it will open a facility in Kingston by 2019. It is expected to create about 1,000 jobs during construction and 200 full-time jobs when completed.82 Furthermore, Kruger Products L.P., a manufacturer and distributor of tissue products, received a loan from the province to help expand its operations in Trenton. The project is expected to be completed by the end of 2019, and will create 119 jobs and retain 184 positions.83 The new Shorelines Casino in Belleville observed a ground breaking in its construction, with the casino expected to open in 2017 and create 300-plus jobs in the area.84 In the regional utilities industry, an investment of $800M in Chalk River's Canadian Nuclear Laboratories over the next five years was announced in 2016. The funds will be used for the construction of new facilities and the refurbishment of existing infrastructure.85

In Southwest Ontario, employment grew modestly in the economic regions of Windsor–Sarnia and London. In Windsor, K+S Windsor Salt Ltd. announced that it will invest $60M to expand operations at their Ojibway Salt Mine, extending mining operations by nearly 50 years, with work scheduled to begin in 2017.86 In contrast, Compass Minerals laid off approximately 90 employees from its Sifto Salt Mine in Goderich in late 2015,87 although the company has since started hiring again.88 The chemical cluster in the Sarnia–Lambton area received a boost with a $12M investment from the Government of Canada, creating 478 full-time equivalent jobs by 2018.89 However, disappointing news came from Thamesford, where Maple Leaf Foods Inc. announced that it will be closing its turkey processing plant by early 2018, affecting approximately 400 workers.90

Employment increased by 4,200 in the Ottawa economic region, equivalent to a 0.6% gain over the year. While much of the focus is on the construction of the Confederation LRT Line, mixed news came out of the regional retail trade industry in 2016. On the positive side, Cabela's, an outdoor recreation retailer, opened in Ottawa in September, planning to hire about 175 full-time and part-time employees.91 As well, CF Rideau Centre, a shopping centre in downtown Ottawa, opened its four-level expansion, which includes more than 20 new retailers.92 However, the Jean Coutu Group Inc. announced that it is moving its Hawkesbury distribution centre to Quebec, affecting about 127 employees.93 In addition, Metro Inc. announced that it is closing its grocery store in Cornwall, resulting in the loss of 68 jobs.94

Small employment gains were also registered in the Muskoka–Kawarthas and Northwest economic regions. The arts, entertainment and recreation industry in Peterborough will be boosted by the announcement that the Ontario Gaming East Limited Partnership will build a new casino, creating 150 new jobs at the gaming tables and the restaurant.95 In Northwest Ontario, the region continued to see some activity in its mining industry, with Goldcorp Inc. announcing that it will proceed with $90M of expansions at its Musselwhite gold mine to increase production in 2019,96 and New Gold Inc. continuing construction on its Rainy River Project northwest of Fort Frances.97

Employment levels were relatively stable compared to the previous year in the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula (+0.3%) and the Stratford–Bruce Peninsula (+0.3%) economic regions. Despite this slow growth, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula's regional unemployment rate of 4.8% was the lowest in Ontario.

Small employment decreases in two economic regions in 2016

The job climate improved in nearly all economic regions in Ontario in 2016. The only regions to see a loss in employment were Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie and Northeast Ontario.

Employment fell slightly in Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie (-4,600; -0.6%) over the past year. The unemployment rate held firm at 5.4%, but both the participation and employment rates dipped in 2016. Labour market conditions varied between the census metropolitan areas in the region, with stable employment in Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo and Guelph countered by a fall in Barrie. The regional health care industry had a fair amount of layoff announcements across the region over 2016, as several local hospitals and medical centres cut staff in an effort to trim budgets.98 The manufacturing industry also saw a handful of long-standing companies shut facilities,99 although others boosted capacity, with expansions at RIMOWA North America Inc., Phoenix Building Components, and Stemmler's Meat & Cheese part of an active year for the regional manufacturing base.100

Meanwhile, BlackBerry Inc. continued to remodel its operations throughout 2016,101 with the company increasing its focus on security and software and outsourcing production duties. The region's innovation and technology hub had a solid year with numerous investments and hiring rounds. Google Canada opened its new Canadian head office in the region, and Shopify Plus added 200 employees after moving into the former Seagram Museum in Waterloo,102 while the University of Waterloo launched the largest free start-up incubator in the world, and plans are in the works to create a technology campus valued at $55M.103 In addition, steady population growth and business activity supported an overall rise in housing starts and investment in non-residential construction in the major urban centres in the area.104 Some of the larger projects to break ground included the Elora Mill Hotel & Spa, expected to cost $120M, and a recreation centre in Orillia pegged at $53M.105

Employment was relatively flat in the Northeast Ontario economic region in 2016, with a small decline over the year (-300; -0.1%). The unemployment rate fell over the year to 7.2%, although this was still the highest rate among Ontario's economic regions. Conditions across the core resource-based industries varied over the past year in the region. The slump in metal commodity prices at the start of 2016 weighed down on local operations, as some miners reduced output and cut staff,106 as these layoffs further extended to those that supply and service the mining industry. Even with this slowdown, there were some positive announcements over the year, with new projects and future exploration work. General Magnesium Corporation opened its magnesium-talc mine near Timmins, and Goldcorp Canada Ltd. will open the first fully electrical mine in the world near Chapleau in 2017.107

A stronger American housing market encouraged wood product manufacturers to restart sawmills and ramp up efforts in the region. The film industry was also a big newsmaker in the Northeast region. Hideaway Pictures and Motion Picture Corporation of America signed a deal worth $100M that will lead to more production opportunities in the region during the next three years.108 Another sector that saw a fair amount of activity was the construction industry. Several infrastructure developments took shape to upgrade highways, bridges and schools in the Northeast.109,110 This past year saw a number of temporary and permanent layoffs for steelmakers such as Tenaris Algoma Tubes and Essar Steel Algoma Inc.,111,112 but an uptick in steel prices and greater global demand may help producers turn the corner.

Ontario Annual Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
Employment ('000)
Seasonally unadjusted data
Year 2015 to 2016 2014 to 2015
2016 2015 2014 Number % Number %
Ontario 6,999.6 6,923.2 6,877.9 76.4 1.1 45.3 0.7
Economic regions
Ottawa 692.4 688.2 697.8 4.2 0.6 -9.6 -1.4
Kingston–Pembroke 212.5 201.0 210.1 11.5 5.7 -9.1 -4.3
Muskoka–Kawarthas 170.6 167.8 186.3 2.8 1.7 -18.5 -9.9
Toronto 3,373.2 3,320.4 3,241.1 52.8 1.6 79.3 2.4
Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie 706.0 710.6 704.5 -4.6 -0.6 6.1 0.9
Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula 721.4 719.1 706.4 2.3 0.3 12.7 1.8
London 330.9 330.4 324.8 0.5 0.2 5.6 1.7
Windsor–Sarnia 299.4 295.1 299.1 4.3 1.5 -4.0 -1.3
Stratford–Bruce Peninsula 145.5 145.0 151.1 0.5 0.3 -6.1 -4.0
Northeast 247.8 248.1 256.8 -0.3 -0.1 -8.7 -3.4
Northwest 99.9 97.4 99.8 2.5 2.6 -2.4 -2.4

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0123

Annual Employment Growth, by Economic Region, for Ontario
Annual employment growth, by economic region, for Ontario 2015 - 2016. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table
Annual Employment Growth, by Economic Region, for Ontario
Economic Region 2015 to 2016
Ontario 1.1%
Kingston-Pembroke 5.7%
Northwest 2.6%
Muskoka-Kawarthas 1.7%
Toronto 1.6%
Windsor-Sarnia 1.5%
Ottawa 0.6%
Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula 0.3%
Stratford-Bruce Peninsula 0.3%
London 0.2%
Northeast -0.1%
Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie -0.6%

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may hav

Prepared by: Labour Market Socio-Economic Information (LMSID) Directorate, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team at: NC-LMI-IMT-GD@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 027-0054. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, all areas, Canada and provinces, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, annual

Return to Footnote 1

Footnote 2

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 026-0006. Building permits, by type of structure and area, seasonally adjusted, annual

Return to Footnote 2

Footnote 3

Prime Minister's Office. (2016. August 23). The Prime Minister of Canada and the Premier of Ontario announce agreement under new federal infrastructure funding program. Canadian Newswire. Retrieved from: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/the-prime-minister-of-canada-and-the-premier-of-ontario-announce-agreement-under-new-federal-infrastructure-funding-program-591030371.html

Return to Footnote 3

Footnote 4

Newsroom Ontario. (2016, March 10). Ontario Breaks Ground on First Eglinton Crosstown LRT Station. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/03/ontario-breaks-ground-on-first-eglinton-crosstown-lrt-station.html

Return to Footnote 4

Footnote 5

Newsroom Ontario. (2016, June 03). Ontario Committing More Than $1 Billion for Light Rail Transit in Ottawa. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/06/ontario-committing-more-than-1-billion-for-light-rail-transit-in-ottawa.html

Return to Footnote 5

Footnote 6

Mackenzie Health. (Fall 2016). Construction Started on the Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital Project. Mackenzie Health. Retrieved from: http://mackenziehealth.ca/report/2016/10/27/construction-started-mackenzie-vaughan-hospital-project

Return to Footnote 6

Footnote 7

Newsroom Ontario. (2016, August 4). Ontario Increases Funding for Hospital Repairs and Upgrades. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/08/ontario-increases-funding-for-hospital-repairs-and-upgrades.html

Return to Footnote 7

Footnote 8

Thorne, L. (2016, April 20). Construction Set To Start On New Leamington High School. windsoriteDOTca inc. Retrieved from: http://windsorite.ca/2016/04/construction-set-to-start-on-new-leamington-high-school

Return to Footnote 8

Footnote 9

Pritchard, B. (2016, October 07). Groundbreaking ceremony held for new elementary school in Alliston. Alliston Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6900465-groundbreaking-ceremony-held-for-new-elementary-school-in-alliston/

Return to Footnote 9

Footnote 10

Newsroom Ontario. (2016, June 27). Ontario Investing $1.1 Billion To Improve School Buildings. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/edu/en/2016/06/ontario-investing-11-billion-to-improve-school-buildings.html

Return to Footnote 10

Footnote 11

Newsroom Ontario. (2016, October 14). Nuclear Refurbishment Begins At Darlington Generating Station. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mei/en/2016/10/nuclear-refurbishment-begins-at-darlington-generating-station.html

Return to Footnote 11

Footnote 12

Parks Canada. (2016, June 26). 2016 Trent-Severn Waterway National Historic Site Announcement Grand total investment: $267.5M. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do;jsessionid=4557d218306567f4eea829a7139b5a43a92b458cf435bea3de0c72f37118a883.e38RbhaLb3qNe3eKa3z0?mthd=index&crtr.page=1&nid=1090109

Return to Footnote 12

Footnote 13

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 281-0023. Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), employment by type of employee and detailed North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), unadjusted for seasonality, annual (persons)

Return to Footnote 13

Footnote 14

Ontario Ministry of Finance. Economic Accounts - Historical Tables - Table 3 - Quarterly Data; Ontario Real Gross Domestic Product, Expenditure-Based Seasonally Adjusted Data At Annual Rates, Millions Of Chained (2007) Dollars at: http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/ecaccts/index.html#lot

Return to Footnote 14

Footnote 15

Newsroom Ontario. (2016, June 15). Ontario Partners with FCA Canada to Build the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid -- the World's First Plug-in Hybrid Electric Minivan. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/06/ontario-partners-with-fca-canada-to-build-the-chrysler-pacifica-hybrid----the-worlds-first-plug-in-h.html

Return to Footnote 15

Footnote 16

CBC News Staff. (2016, February 11). Windsor Assembly Plant to hire 1,200 new workers, FCA CEO says. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/fiat-chrysler-windsor-assembly-plant-1.3444443

Return to Footnote 16

Footnote 17

Keenan, G. (2016, October 11). Fiat Chrysler's $325-million investment a major victory for Brampton plant. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industry-news/fiat-chryslers-325-million-brampton-investment-a-victory-for-unifor/article32324227/

Return to Footnote 17

Footnote 18

Walsworth, J. (2016, August 19). Ford to extend GT production in Markham two more years. Automotive News Canada. Retrieved from: http://canada.autonews.com/article/20160819/CANADA01/308199915/ford-to-extend-gt-production-in-markham-two-more-years

Return to Footnote 18

Footnote 19

Owram, C. (2016, November 06). Ford Canada workers approve labour agreement, but divisions remain. Financial Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/news/transportation/ford-labour-deal

Return to Footnote 19

Footnote 20

CTV News Kitchener Staff. (2016, November 28). Stratford auto parts plant to undergo $50-million expansion. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/stratford-auto-parts-plant-to-undergo-50-million-expansion-1.3180382

Return to Footnote 20

Footnote 21

Government of Canada. (2016, April 13). Automotive Supplier Innovation Program. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=advSrch&crtr.mnthndVl=&crtr.mnthStrtVl=&crtr.page=1&nid=1050779&crtr.yrndVl=&crtr.kw=electromac&crtr.yrStrtVl=&crtr.dyStrtVl=&crtr.dyndVl=

Return to Footnote 21

Footnote 22

CBC News Staff. (2016, May 11). Ontario invests $7.8M in Windsor area auto companies. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/windsor-auto-sector-funding-1.3576788

Return to Footnote 22

Footnote 23

Keenan, G. (2016, September 21). GM's Oshawa revamp to permit final assembly of pickups. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/gms-oshawa-revamp-to-permit-final-assembly-of-pickups/article31990153/

Return to Footnote 23

Footnote 24

Flavelle, D. (2016, June 7). General Motors of Canada to announce 1,000 new jobs: sources. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2016/06/07/general-motors-of-canada-to-announce-1000-new-jobs-sources.html

Return to Footnote 24

Footnote 25

Chessell, B. (2016, January 24). GM's Ingersoll CAMI plant looking to hire assembly line and skilled trade workers. Woodstock Sentinel-Review. Retrieved from: http://www.woodstocksentinelreview.com/2016/01/24/gms-ingersoll-cami-plant-looking-to-hire-assembly-line-and-skilled-trade-workers

Return to Footnote 25

Footnote 26

Keenan, G. (2017, January 27). GM to cut 625 jobs at Ontario plant, union says. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/gm-to-cut-as-many-as-600-jobs-in-southwestern-ontario-union-says/article33794522

Return to Footnote 26

Footnote 27

Welch, D. (2017, January 09). GM to move production of GMC Terrain from Ingersoll to Mexico. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/7057068-gm-to-move-production-of-gmc-terrain-from-ingersoll-to-mexico/

Return to Footnote 27

Footnote 28

DesRosiers Automotive Consultants Inc. (2017, February 28) Automotive Yearbook. DesRosiers Automotive Reports.

Return to Footnote 28

Footnote 29

Szekely, R. (2016, June 03). Johnson Controls closing Whitby plant on July 1. DurhamRegion.com. Retrieved from: http://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/6705746-johnson-controls-closing-whitby-plant-on-july-

Return to Footnote 29

Footnote 30

Lu, V. (2016, February 17). Canada to lose 2,830 jobs as Bombardier slashes workforce. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2016/02/17/bombardier-cutting-7000-jobs.html

Return to Footnote 30

Footnote 31

Seto, C. (2016, December 07). Hitachi's Guelph plant lays off 129 production workers. Guelph Mercury Tribune. Retrieved from: https://www.guelphmercury.com/news-story/7007793-hitachi-s-guelph-plant-lays-off-129-production-workers

Return to Footnote 31

Footnote 32

Saxon, T. (2016, December 07). Hitachi lays off entire production staff at Guelph plant. Guelph Today. Retrieved from: https://www.guelphtoday.com/local-news/hitachi-lays-off-entire-production-staff-at-guelph-plant-483359

Return to Footnote 32

Footnote 33

Arnold, S. (2016, August 30). Steel Car: Company lays off 300 as orders slump. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6829947-steel-car-company-lays-off-300-as-orders-slump

Return to Footnote 33

Footnote 34

Arnold, S. (2016, September 02). More National Steel Car layoffs loom. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6836537-more-national-steel-car-layoffs-loom/

Return to Footnote 34

Footnote 35

Macaspac, K. (2017, January). Economic Trends, Page 2. Alberta Treasury Board and Finance. Retrieved from: http://www.finance.alberta.ca/aboutalberta/economic-trends/2017/2017-01-economic-trends.pdf

Return to Footnote 35

Footnote 36

Tenaris. (2016, September 13). Tenaris announces recall of employees at AlgomaTubes mill. Tenaris. Retrieved from: http://www.tenaris.com/en/MediaAndPublications/News/2016/September/RecallOfEmployeesAlgomaTubes.aspx

Return to Footnote 36

Footnote 37

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 281-0023. Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), employment by type of employee and detailed North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), unadjusted for seasonality, annual (persons)

Return to Footnote 37

Footnote 38

Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Patients First: Action Plan for Health Care February 2015. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Retrieved from: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/ms/ecfa/healthy_change/docs/rep_patientsfirst.pdf

Return to Footnote 38

Footnote 39

Crawford, B. (2016, January 28). CHEO's 'Project Stitch' aims to cut wait times, increase number of surgeries. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from: http://ottawacitizen.com/health/family-child/embargo-cheos-project-stitch-aims-to-cut-wait-times-increase-number-of-surgeries

Return to Footnote 39

Footnote 40

Government of Ontario, Office of the Premier. (2016, August 4). Ontario Increases Funding for Hospital Repairs and Upgrades. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/08/ontario-increases-funding-for-hospital-repairs-and-upgrades.html

Return to Footnote 40

Footnote 41

Ontario Minstry of Children and Youth Services. (2016, January 22). Ontario Hiring More Mental Health Workers for Children and Youth. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mcys/en/2016/01/ontario-hiring-more-mental-health-workers-for-children-and-youth.html

Return to Footnote 41

Footnote 42

Zajac, R. (2016, January 6). Up to 55 new jobs at Royal Brock. Brockville Recorder. Retrieved from: http://www.recorder.ca/2016/01/06/up-to-55-new-jobs-at-royal-brock; A Place for Mom. The Royal Brock Retirement Living (Opening January 2017). Retrieved from http://www.aplaceformom.com/community/the-royal-brock-retirement-living-opening-january-2017-1396766

Return to Footnote 42

Footnote 43

Westendorp, J. (2016, September 2). New state-of-the-art retirement home breaks ground in Kemptville on Aug. 31. Kemptville Advance. Retrieved from: http://www.insideottawavalley.com/news-story/6835588-new-state-of-the-art-retirement-home-breaks-ground-in-kemptville-on-aug-31/

Return to Footnote 43

Footnote 44

Daniszewski, H. (2016, January 27). The Business Buzz: Jan. 26: PeopleCare Digging in. London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/01/25/business-buzz-jan-26

Return to Footnote 44

Footnote 45

CBC News Staff. (2016, January 12). Windsor Regional Hospital sheds 166 jobs amid $20M shortfall. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/windsor-regional-hospital-sheds-166-jobs-1.3400318

Return to Footnote 45

Footnote 46

Bennett, K. (2016, February 1). St. Joe's cutting 136 jobs, up to 40 from layoffs. CBC News Hamilton. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/news/st-joe-s-cutting-136-jobs-up-to-40-from-layoffs-1.3429301

Return to Footnote 46

Footnote 47

PwC Canada. (2016). Canadian Banks 2016. PriceWaterhouseCooper Canada. Retrieved from: http://read.ca.pwc.com/i/664645-canadian-banks-2016/1

Return to Footnote 47

Footnote 48

Posadzki, A. (2016, May 25). BMO to lay off 1,850, but raises dividend. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2016/05/25/bmos-profit-falls-but-dividend-raised.html

Return to Footnote 48

Footnote 49

TMX Group. (2016, September 20). TMX Group Updates Organizational Transformation. TMX Group. Retrieved from: https://www.tmx.com/newsroom/press-releases?id=491&year=2016

Return to Footnote 49

Footnote 50

PwC Canada. (2016). Canadian Banks 2016. PriceWaterhouseCooper Canada. Retrieved from: http://read.ca.pwc.com/i/664645-canadian-banks-2016/1

Return to Footnote 50

Footnote 51

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 281-0023. Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), employment by type of employee and detailed North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), unadjusted for seasonality, annual (persons)

Return to Footnote 51

Footnote 52

Lu, V. (2016, January 19). Postmedia cuts 90 jobs across Canada. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/business/2016/01/19/postmedia-begins-making-job-cuts.html

Return to Footnote 52

Footnote 53

The Canadian Press. (2016, January 25). Rogers to cut 200 media and admin jobs. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/business/2016/01/25/rogers-to-cut-200-media-and-admin-jobs.html

Return to Footnote 53

Footnote 54

Lu, V. (2016, January 15). Toronto Star to close Vaughan printing plant. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/business/2016/01/15/toronto-star-to-close-vaughan-printing-plant.html

Return to Footnote 54

Footnote 55

Cameron, P. (2017, February 27). Toronto film, television, digital industry hit high of $2B in 2016: Tory. The Canadian Press. Retrieved from: http://www.cp24.com/news/toronto-film-television-digital-industry-hit-high-of-2b-in-2016-tory-1.3303321

Return to Footnote 55

Footnote 56

CBC News Staff. (2016, February 16). Sudbury film industry booming while Nova Scotia feels bust. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/film-industry-tax-credits-jobs-sudbury-1.3451124

Return to Footnote 56

Footnote 57

NetNewsledger Staff. (2017, February 27). Record Setting Year for Film, Television in Toronto. NetNewsledger. Retrieved from: http://www.netnewsledger.com/2017/02/27/record-setting-year-film-television-toronto/

Return to Footnote 57

Footnote 58

Khalil, N. (2016, September 7). Amazon opens new robotic distribution centre in Brampton. Brampton Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.bramptonguardian.com/news-story/6845339-amazon-opens-new-robotic-distribution-centre-in-brampton/

Return to Footnote 58

Footnote 59

Canadian Press. (2016, September 26). GoodLife to add 600 jobs by August. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/goodlife-to-add-600-jobs-by-august/article32063197/

Return to Footnote 59

Footnote 60

Daniszewski, H. (2016, October 28). GoodLife: London-based fitness chain eliminating 60 head office jobs and 225 at clubs. London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/10/27/goodlife-london-based-fitness-chain-eliminating-60-head-office-jobs-and-225-at-clubs

Return to Footnote 60

Footnote 61

Wright, L. (2016, March 13). Canadian retailers closing amid intense competition, failure to adapt to market. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/canadian-retailers-closing-1.3485248

Return to Footnote 61

Footnote 62

CBC News Staff. (2016, April 18). Le Chateau to shut 14 stores this year, more closures to come. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/le-chateau-earnings-1.3540573

Return to Footnote 62

Footnote 63

The Associated Press. (2016, May 4). Aéropostale seeks bankruptcy protection, closing all Canadian stores. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-business/us-business/aeropostale-seeks-bankruptcy-protection-closing-all-canadian-stores/article29861051/

Return to Footnote 63

Footnote 64

CBC News Staff. (2016, June 9). Jones New York to close all 37 stores in Canada and liquidate. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/jones-new-york-canada-1.3624043

Return to Footnote 64

Footnote 65

Canadian Newswire. (2016, July 29). Going-Out-Of-Business Sales Begin At All Ben Moss Jewellers Stores Saturday, July 30th. Canadian Newswire. Retrieved from: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/going-out-of-business-sales-begin-at-all-ben-moss-jewellers-stores-saturday-july-30th-588717351.html.

Return to Footnote 65

Footnote 66

Newport, A. (2016, October 26). Walmart at Erin Mills Town Centre Finally Set to Open in Mississauga. Insauga.com. Retrieved from: https://www.insauga.com/walmart-at-erin-mills-town-centre-finally-set-to-open-in-mississauga

Return to Footnote 66

Footnote 67

Guelph Mercury Staff. (2016, August 3). Walmart number two set to open in Guelph. Guelph Mercury. Retrieved from: http://www.guelphmercury.com/news-story/6793792-walmart-number-two-set-to-open-in-guelph/

Return to Footnote 67

Footnote 68

Beach Mirror Staff. (2016, April 27). IKEA hosts Talent Focus Week in its goal to recruit 4,000 workers and double its presence in Canada in the next decade. Beach Mirror. Retrieved from: http://www.yorkregion.com/news-story/6455095-ikea-hosts-talent-focus-week-in-its-goal-to-recruit-4-000-workers-and-double-its-presence-in-canada/

Return to Footnote 68

Footnote 69

CNW Staff. (2016, April 12). Loblaw to invest $1.3 billion, create approximately 20,000 jobs in 2016. Canada Newswire. Retrieved from: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/loblaw-to-invest-13-billion-create-approximately-20000-jobs-in-2016-575370521.html

Return to Footnote 69

Footnote 70

Kopun, F. (2016, February 25). Nordstrom begins hiring for new stores. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/business/2016/02/25/nordstrom-begins-hiring-for-toronto-stores.html

Return to Footnote70

Footnote 71

Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2015, December 21). Federal Government Announces Investment in Aerospace Manufacturing. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1025469

Return to Footnote 71

Footnote 72

CanadianManufacturing.com Staff. (2016, March 17). Medical device maker Baylis to build $36.7M Ontario R&D facility. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from: http://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/exporting-and-importing/medical-device-maker-baylis-to-build-36-7m-ontario-rd-facility-164603/

Return to Footnote 72

Footnote 73

Lu, V. (2016, January 15). Toronto Star to close Vaughan printing plant. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/business/2016/01/15/toronto-star-to-close-vaughan-printing-plant.html

Return to Footnote 73

Footnote 74

Szekely, R. (2016, June 3). Johnson Controls closing Whitby plant on July 1. Whitby This Week. Retrieved from: http://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/6705746-johnson-controls-closing-whitby-plant-on-july-1/

Return to Footnote 74

Footnote 75

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 026-0007 - Building permits, dwelling units by type of structure and value by activity sector, economic regions, monthly

Return to Footnote 75

Footnote 76

Office of the Premier. (2016, March 10). Ontario Breaks Ground on First Eglinton Crosstown LRT Station. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/03/ontario-breaks-ground-on-first-eglinton-crosstown-lrt-station.html

Return to Footnote 76

Footnote 77

CityNews Staff. (2016, February 16). Woodbine Racetrack announces $50 million expansion plan. CityNews. Retrieved from: http://www.citynews.ca/2016/02/16/woodbine-racetrack-announces-huge-expansion-plan/

Return to Footnote 77

Footnote 78

Ajax News Advertiser Staff. (2016, September 8). Medallion Corporation about to start work on second tower of massive project in downtown Ajax. Ajax News Advertiser. Retrieved from: http://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/6847398-medallion-corporation-about-to-start-work-on-second-tower-of-massive-project-in-downtown-ajax/

Return to Footnote 78

Footnote 79

McGee, N. (2016, September 21). TMX Group cutting 115 jobs, about 10% of work force, to reduce costs. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.bnn.ca/tmx-group-cutting-115-jobs-about-10-of-work-force-to-reduce-costs-1.570808

Return to Footnote 79

Footnote 80

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2016, November 11). Quick Facts: Ontario Schools, 2014-2015. Ontario Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/quickfacts/2014_2015.html

Return to Footnote 80

Footnote 81

Rushowy, K. (2016, March 9). TDSB approves cutting teacher jobs as enrolment dips. Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2016/03/09/tdsb-approves-cutting-teacher-jobs-as-enrolment-dips.html

Return to Footnote 81

Footnote 82

Kingston Whig-Standard Staff. (2016, December 1). Baby formula company to generate hundreds of jobs. Kingston Whig-Standard. Retrieved from: http://www.thewhig.com/2016/12/01/baby-formula-company-to-generate-hundreds-of-jobs

Return to Footnote 82

Footnote 83

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth. (2016, August 31). Ontario Partners with Kruger to Expand Trenton Facilities. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2016/08/ontario-partners-with-kruger-to-expand-trenton-facilities.html

Return to Footnote 83

Footnote 84

Miller, T. (2016, April 27). Casino breaks ground. Belleville Intelligencer. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2016/04/27/casino-breaks-ground

Return to Footnote 84

Footnote 85

Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Staff. (2016, April 4). Making Vision 2026 a reality. Canadian Nuclear Laboratories. Retrieved from: http://www.cnl.ca/en/home/news-and-publications/stories/2016/160414.aspx

Return to Footnote 85

Footnote 86

CBC News Staff. (2016, July 25). $60M expansion planned for Windsor's Ojibway salt mine. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/windsor-salt-ojibway-expand-1.3693927

Return to Footnote 86

Footnote 87

Miller, S. (2015, December 22). Warm winter brings layoffs at Goderich salt mine. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://london.ctvnews.ca/warm-winter-brings-layoffs-at-goderich-salt-mine-1.2710542

Return to Footnote 87

Footnote 88

Jackson, P. (2017, January 17). Sifto Salt Mine in Goderich Hiring. Bayshore Broadcasting. Retrieved from: http://www.bayshorebroadcasting.ca/news_item.php?NewsID=90391

Return to Footnote 88

Footnote 89

FedDev Ontario. (2016, July 25). Government of Canada Invests $12M to Support Bio-Based Innovation in Sarnia. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=advSrch&crtr.mnthndVl=&crtr.mnthStrtVl=&crtr.page=1&nid=1103989&crtr.yrndVl=&crtr.kw=sarnia&crtr.yrStrtVl=&crtr.dyStrtVl=&crtr.dyndVl=

Return to Footnote 89

Footnote 90

Stacey, M. (2016, November 15). Maple Leaf announces that Thamesford plant will be closed and fresh turkey processing will move to Sofina facility in Mitchell, Ont. Beacon Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.lfpress.com/2016/11/15/maple-leaf-announces-that-thamesford-plant-will-be-closed-and-fresh-turkey-processing-will-move-to-sofina-facility-in-mitchell-ont

Return to Footnote 90

Footnote 91

Kveton, A. (2016, January 16). Cabela's to open in September. Kanata Kourier-Standard. Retrieved from: http://www.ottawacommunitynews.com/news-story/6230131-cabela-s-to-open-in-september/

Return to Footnote 91

Footnote 92

Retail Insider Staff. (2016, August 14). CF Rideau Centre Opens Substantial Four-Level Expansion [Photos and Floor Plan]. Retail Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2016/8/rideau-centre

Return to Footnote 92

Footnote 93

Ottawa Citizen Staff. (2016, January 26). More than 120 layoffs expected at Jean Coutu Hawkesbury warehouse. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/more-than-120-layoffs-expected-at-jean-coutu-hawkesbury-warehouse

Return to Footnote 93

Footnote 94

Baker, L. (2016, March 29). Metro closing Cornwall store. Cornwall Standard-Freeholder. Retrieved from: http://www.standard-freeholder.com/2016/03/29/metro-closing-cornwall-store

Return to Footnote 94

Footnote 95

Kovach, J. (2016, April 13). Casino confirmed for city of Peterborough. Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from: http://www.thepeterboroughexaminer.com/2016/04/12/casino-confirmed-for-city-of-peterborough

Return to Footnote 95

Footnote 96

Bradley, S. (2016, August). Goldcorp to expand materials handling at Musselwhite. Sioux Lookout Bulletin. Retrieved from: http://www.siouxbulletin.com/goldcorp-to-expand-materials-handling-at-musselwhite?id=1620

Return to Footnote 96

Footnote 97

New Gold Inc. Staff. (2016, September 7). New Gold Provides Rainy River Project Development Update. New Gold Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.newgold.com/investors/NewGoldNews/PressReleaseDetail/2016/New-Gold-Provides-Rainy-River-Project-Development-Update/default.aspx

Return to Footnote 97

Footnote 98

Ontario Health Coalition. (2016, April 13). Beyond Limits Ontario's Deepening Hospital Cuts Crisis. Ontario Health Coalition. Retrieved from: http://www.ontariohealthcoalition.ca/wp-content/uploads/final-beyond-limits-report1.pdf

Return to Footnote 98

Footnote 99

Pritchard, B. (2016, January 18). PGW plant in Alliston to close in October. Simcoe.com. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6237740-pgw-plant-in-alliston-to-close-in-october; Philips, A. (2016, May 25). Stephan closing in Ramara Township. Orilliapacket.com. Retrieved from: http://www.orilliapacket.com/2016/05/25/stepan-closing; Hicks, J. (2016, November 03). Cambridge Towel plant closing. TheRecord.com. Retrieved from: http://www.therecord.com/news-story/6945707-cambridge-towel-plant-closing/

Return to Footnote 99

Footnote 100

David, B. (2016, February 05). Rimowa hiring, expanding operations in Cambridge. TheRecord.com. Retrieved from: http://www.therecord.com/news-story/6265825-rimowa-hiring-expanding-operations-in-cambridge/; McInroy, I. (2016, February 18). New plant in Essa Township will provide work for 100. Barrie Examiner. Retrieved from: http://www.thebarrieexaminer.com/2016/02/18/new-plant-in-essa-township-will-provided-work-for-100; Vrbanac, B. (2016, September 21). Stemmler's celebrates big 3-0 with major expansion. Waterloo Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://www.waterloochronicle.ca/news-story/6869834-stemmler-s-celebrates-big-3-0-with-major-expansion/

Return to Footnote 100

Footnote 101

Sagan, A. (2016, September 26). BlackBerry plan to outsource hardware development will lead to 'limited' layoffs: CEO. BNN. Retrieved from: http://www.bnn.ca/blackberry-plan-to-outsource-hardware-development-will-lead-to-limited-layoffs-ceo-says-1.575299

Return to Footnote 101

Footnote 102

Vrbanac, B. (2016, September 14). The wave of the future. Waterloo Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://www.waterloochronicle.ca/news-story/6857276-the-wave-of-the-future/

Return to Footnote 102

Footnote 103

Global News Staff. (2016, January 12). Google to open new headquarters in Waterloo. Global News. Retrieved from: http://globalnews.ca/news/2448172/google-to-open-a-new-headquarters-in-waterloo/; University of Waterloo. (2016, October 28). Velocity Garage celebrates Grand Opening, now the largest free startup incubator in the world. University of Waterloo. Retrieved from: http://velocity.uwaterloo.ca/2016/10/velocity-garage-celebrates-grand-opening-now-the-largest-free-startup-incubator-in-the-world/; Ho, K. (2016, June 21). Massive innovation complex coming to Kitchener-Waterloo. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/small-business/startups/massive-innovation-complex-coming-to-kitchener-waterloo/article30543400/

Return to Footnote 103

Footnote 104

Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 027-0049 - Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, under construction and completions in selected census metropolitan areas, annual (units); Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 026-0016 - Investment in non-residential building construction, by type of building, province and census metropolitan area (CMA), quarterly (dollars)

Return to Footnote 104

Footnote 105

Kostuch Media Ltd. (2016, December 06). Construction Begins on Elora Hotel Project. Hotelier. Retrieved from: https://www.hoteliermagazine.com/construction-begins-elora-hotel-project/; CTV Barrie Staff. (2016, September 28). Breaking ground on Orillia's $53M recreation centre. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://barrie.ctvnews.ca/breaking-ground-on-orillia-s-53m-recreation-centre-1.3093005

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Footnote 106

Sudbury Star Staff. (2016, March 22). 20 layoffs, cut contracts at KGHM. Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thesudburystar.com/2016/03/22/20-layoffs-cut-contracts-at-kghm; Star Staff. (2016, September 22). Vale cuts nine jobs in Sudbury. Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thesudburystar.com/2016/09/22/vale-cuts-nine-jobs-in-sudbury

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Footnote 107

Kelly, L. (2016, February 01). Magnesium mine promising jobs, diversity in Timmins. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from: https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/regional-news/timmins/magnesium-mine-promising-jobs-diversity-in-timmins-371757M; CBC News. (2016, November 30). Goldcorp to open first electric mine near Chapleau next year. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/sudbury/first-electric-mine-goldcorp-chapleau-site-1.3873711

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Footnote 108

Moodie, J. (2016, March 10). Sudbury studio signs major Hollywood deal. Sudbury Star. Retrieved from: http://www.thesudburystar.com/2016/03/10/sudbury-studio-signs-major-hollywood-deal

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Footnote 109

Government of Ontario. Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. (2016, June 24). Ontario Improving Highways in the Northwest. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mndmf/en/2016/06/ontario-improving-highways-in-the-northwest.html

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Footnote 110

Government of Ontario. Office of the Premier. (2016, August 8). Ontario Investing $300 Million to Repair Northern Schools. Newsroom Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/08/ontario-investing-300-million-to-repair-northern-schools

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Footnote 111

Helwig, D. (2016, January 28). More layoffs at Tenaris Algoma Tubes (update). SOOTODAY.com. Retrieved from: https://www.sootoday.com/local-news/more-layoffs-at-tenaris-algoma-tubes-190891

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Footnote 112
Northern Ontario Business Staff. (2016, September 07). Essar Steel Algoma announces layoffs. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from: https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/industry-news/mining/essar-steel-algoma-announces-layoffs-427518

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