Mining and Quarry Operations: Region of Western Canada and the Territories: 2015-2017

Mining and Quarrying: Region of Western Canada and the Territories: 2015-2017

Sectoral Profiles provide an overview of recent labour market developments and outlooks for key industries, for various regions of the country.

Executive Summary

  • Western Canada and the Territories (W-T) account for the majority of Canada's mined copper, potash, coal, uranium, lead, diamond, silica, sand and gravel, and sulphur production.
  • W-T's 2015 capital expenditures on mining development made up 60.2% of the total mining industry expenditures in Canada.Footnote 1
  • The mining industry in the Western provinces directly employs approximately 36,000 people, almost 45% of Canada's mining workforce, and is the single largest private sector employer of Indigenous people.Footnote 2,Footnote 3
  • Declining world commodity prices beginning in 2011 have led to a decline in exploration, mining output, and new projects.
  • Prices are expected to recover in 2018, at which time the industry will likely focus on strategies to replace aging workers.

In 2015, W-T's mining industry contributed $8.9B/year or .54% to national gross domestic product (GDP).Footnote 4 All told, W-T's 2015 capital expenditures on mining development were estimated at just over $1B in W-T region or 60.2% of the total mining industry expenditures in Canada.Footnote 5 Consequently, this industry has major economic and labour impacts for the many rural and remote communities that depend on mining activities, including exploration, drilling and associated construction activities and supply services.

Going forward, the mining industry's growth and employment outlook will depend on an upturn in commodity prices. Gold is on the road to recovery. Metallurgic coal prices are expected to rise in 2017. Base metals such as aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc are expected to rally in 2018. However, thermal coal, potash and uranium markets are expected to remain weak past 2018.Footnote 6,Footnote 7 Even so, investment analyst sentiment is positive, in general, as a result of 2014/15 production cutbacks which reduced supply.Footnote 8

Key Drivers

  • Global growth from industrialization, urbanization and population is the key driver for mining sector since mining resources (minerals and metals) are inputs for many production processes. Global growth performance puts upward pressure on commodity prices.
  • On the supply side there is generally a lag between production and demand which may result in either an over-supply during low points in the cycle or an under-supply during super-cycles.
  • Commodity prices a relatively good indicator on the mining sector's performance and employment prospects.
  • China has long been the world's biggest consumer of iron ore, coal and copper and is a major trade partner for the W-T region's mining industry. China's 2015 economic slow-down, resulting in weakened demand for mined resources, has played a part in W-T's current mining downturn.
  • W-T mines compete with China, Mexico, South Africa, Australia and the US to provide low cost production of minerals and metals which also impacts world prices and demand for W-T products.
  • Mining companies rely heavily on foreign export and demand and are sensitive to the geopolitical landscape. Most commodity markets crave stability and W-T is considered a safe mining jurisdiction for investment.


Western Canada and the Territories (W-T) are world leaders in the production of 19 minerals and metals. In fact, W-T produces 100% of Canada's cesium, lead, molybdenum, tungsten and uranium. Furthermore, the region has vast untouched reserves in coal, diamonds, platinum-group metals (PGM), rare earth elements (REE), titanium, vanadium, chromite, silica and potash.

Between 2002-08, W-T's performance in mining was strong. However, a drop in world commodity prices, particularly for potash, uranium, copper and coal, between 2008-09, and again beginning in 2011 has led to a decline in exploration investment and activity, mining production and new projects. This has resulted in job losses. Mining production slow-downs have also had repercussions for mining support and supply and mineral processing activity.

In Manitoba, the mining industry is primarily concentrated in the production of zinc, nickel, copper, silver and gold. The province is also Canada's sole producer of cesium, lithium and tantalum—used in electronics, batteries and jet engines. Furthermore, the province has untapped reserves of diamonds, PGM, REE, titanium, vanadium, chromite, silica and potash. The government of Manitoba lists 17 key mining players out of about 40 active companies in the province. Employers are supported through a number of provincial government programs including the Mineral Exploration Assistance Program, a tax credit and preferred tax rates for the industry.Footnote 9 In a survey of mining companies world-wide, Manitoba ranked in the top 10 out of 122 jurisdictions.Footnote 10

Saskatchewan has the largest uranium deposits in the world and is also the top global potash producer.Footnote 11 In fact, potash, after gold, was Canada's second leading mined product by value in 2014 at $5.6B.Footnote 12 Province-wide, mines produce not only uranium and potash, but also thermal coal, gold, salt, silica sand, and clay. Saskatchewan has untapped reserves of uranium, potash, peat, diamonds, copper, zinc and REE. A 2015 survey of mining companies found that Saskatchewan ranked 2nd out of 122 world mining jurisdictions in terms of investment attractiveness.Footnote 13 It is anticipated that the provincial government will make changes to the potash royalty and tax structure by the end of 2016.Footnote 14

The primary mining commodity in Alberta is coal with 10 major mines either permitted or in operation.Footnote 15 Three quarters of Alberta's coal mines produce thermal coal; the remaining mines produce metallurgical coal.Footnote 16 In addition, Alberta has hundreds of sand and gravel pits (usually small and medium-sized employers).

In BC, mining is centered on metallurgical (coking) coal, used for making steel, and copper. The province also has robust mining activity for gold, zinc and silver. As an indication of the Government of BC's support for the struggling mining industry, the province will start a program in 2016 to allow electricity payment deferral for mining employers until mineral commodity prices increase.Footnote 17

In the North, mining and exploration activities are critical to local economies. Diamond extraction in the North has made Canada a top-five diamond producer in the world.Footnote 18 Currently there are four active mines in Northwest Territories (NWT) and Nunavut, representing the largest private sector contribution to their respective territorial economies. These mines produce diamonds, gold and iron. Yukon's Minto copper mine is the only active producing mine in this territory. The combined Territories hold a wealth of potential with reserves of iron, diamonds, gold, silver, uranium, REE, and base metals.

Mining and Quarrying Provincial % of GDP and % of Employment in 2005 and 2015
Mining and Quarrying Provincial % of GDP and % of Employment in 2005 and 2015 - The data table for this figure is located below

Sources: 1. Statistics Canada CANSIM Table 379-0030 - Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), provinces and territories, annual (dollars). 2. Statistics Canada Labour force estimates by detailed industry, age, sex, class of worker.
Note: GDP and employment data specific to mining and quarrying (code 212 in the North American Industry Classification System) are not available for the Territories.

Show data tableForestry's Provincial/Territorial % Share of Employment and GDP, 2005 vs. 2015


% of Total GDP

% of Total Employment




























British Columbia



















In 2015, mining employment in the Western provinces reached 36,000.Footnote 19

  • In Manitoba, mining employment contracted by 15.8% on a year-over-year basis in 2015
  • In Saskatchewan, mining employment contracted by 4% on a year-over-year basis in 2015
  • In Alberta, mining employment contracted by 19.2% on a year-over-year basis in 2015
  • In BC, mining employment grew by 10.6% on a year-over-year basis in 2015

Current 2016 employment trends suggest further contractions for all provinces, except BC.

Mining employs a range of trades, processing and technical jobs. Occupations in the mining industry are primarily high-skilled requiring college education and/or apprenticeship training. Underground production and development miners (NOC 8231) make up the largest portion of high- skilled workers. This occupational group includes jobs such as drillers, blasters, and mining machine operators, and usually requires a combination of education and apprenticing, plus licensing or certification.

Occupations that produce diamond and industrial minerals are generally among the highest paid, while many comparable occupations in metal production have a lower wage rate. However, the wages of diamond and industrial mineral-producers tend to vary between different occupations. Some occupations (e.g., heavy equipment operators) are frequently the lowest-paid among the commodity categories. According to a survey of mining employees done by NWT Bureau of Statistics, 54% of the region's diamond mining workforce did not reside in the territory on a permanent basis in 2014.Footnote 20 Reliance on a non-local workforce means that if the labour market tightens and/or other opportunities become available elsewhere in Canada, current non-residents may return to jobs closer to home in the south.

Furthermore, a report on Indigenous Canadians who reside in rural/remote communities commissioned by PR Associates revealed that only 38% have a favourable perception of the mining and mineral exploration industry.Footnote 21 But even so, 6-12% of the mining workforce is Indigenous.Footnote 22

So, the challenges for the industry are 1) recruiting workers to, and keeping workers in rural and remote communities, 2) improving the image and perception of the industry to local indigenous communities, as well as to non-traditional labour pools such as women, new Canadians, and people with disabilities and 3) replacing retiring workers by tapping into new labour pools and growing the Indigenous workforce.

In order to address these concerns, mining companies have used strategies to tap into the local population as a source of labour. Through Impact and Benefit Agreements (IBA), mining employers work with local communities to develop mutually beneficial outcomes. As an example, Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation, in the Baffin region of Nunavut, expects training to meet the goal of 25% Inuit employment at the Mary River mine by the end of 2016. Currently 17-18%of Baffinland's workforce is Inuit.Footnote 23

Mining technology and innovation impacts on employment for the future

Automated and remotely controlled equipment is in development. However, widespread adoption of new technology is not anticipated in the short and medium-term. When new technology is adopted, workers will require computer literacy, data management and information analysis skills. Driverless haul trucks will impact the need for heavy equipment operators.

The Conference Board of Canada suggests that wastewater recycling could provide an alternative source for industry revenue to offset challenges during slow commodity demand.Footnote 24

Industry Trends

The capital intensive nature and international competitive pressures in the mining industry has resulted in a greater concentration of the industry dominated by a small number of multi-national firms involved in large scale mining production. For example, Teck Resources produces 85% of Canada's coal output.Footnote 25 Vale, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton account for the majority of world-wide iron ore trade.Footnote 26 Exploration, sand and gravel, and mining supply and support services, on the other hand, are dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. Exploration companies depend on attracting financing for their projects.

While commodity prices can be volatile, depressed prices over the medium- to long-term can have a negative effect on mining operations and employment. Between 2002 and 2008, the price of energy and metals more than doubled before the commodity market severely corrected itself in late 2008 as a result of global economic slowdown. Following the 2009 recession and bottoming out of commodity markets, W-T's mining industry began its recovery. Mining operators diversified their markets targeting Asia as a major trading partner for W-T mining products. However, beginning with the economic debt crises in Europe (2009-2014) and a slowdown in China's economic growth (beginning December 2014) there has been a drop in demand and a world-wide oversupply for many of Canada's raw materials, particularly metals. And, even in 2016 uranium prices are still reeling from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan (previously third in the world in nuclear production), with world stockpiles remaining high.Footnote 27

Coal operations in W-T have scaled back operations, shuttered non-productive mines and delayed new project investment due to low world prices and a weak medium-term outlook.

Potash production has been curtailed due to struggling markets in Eurasia. In 2015 Potash Corp cut production at three mines as a result of declining prices and a negative outlook. BHP Billiton announced recently that it will wait out the potash market before beginning production at its Jansen mine. Given a flat forecast for Potash the Saskatchewan government is approaching the royalty review process slowly.Footnote 28

The Alberta government announced in 2015 that it would accelerate the phase out of coal fired plants. Coal is used to generate over half the electricity in Alberta according to the Coal Association of Canada.

British Columbia is ranked second in Canada for mineral exploration expenditures, with almost 20% of all exploration spending taking place in this province in 2015. A BC's Ministry of Energy & Mines report showed that exploration has slowed since 2011, a trend that continued in 2015.

The outlook for mining prospects in Western Canada's provinces and the Territories is cautious in the short-term. Low commodity prices and a green energy push in Alberta suggest that the industry will likely scale back output, shutter less productive mines, and delay investment in new projects in anticipation of market recovery beginning in 2017-18.

Employment Outlook

Among the Western provinces, Saskatchewan is expected to experience the most rapid growth in mining and quarrying between 2015 and 2017 with an estimated growth in employment of 2,000 workers. BC will also add 1,200 workers to the sector over the same period. However, Alberta and the Yukon will likely see job losses from 2015-17.

Regionally, Regina & Southern Saskatchewan (+5.2%) is expected to experience the strongest employment growth between 2015 and 2017. While Northern Alberta, Edmonton, Red Deer, Camrose, and Drumheller are expected to experience the strongest decline (between -0.5 and -0.6%). BC's Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island are also expected to see employment declines between -0.6% and -0.3%, respectively

Projected employment change for the mining and quarrying industry during the 2015-2017 forecast period

Economic Region

Projected Change in Employment

Projected Annual Growth




Southern Manitoba






Northern Manitoba






Regina & Southern Saskatchewan



Saskatoon & Northern Saskatchewan






Calgary & Southern Alberta



Edmonton, Red Deer, Camrose, & Drumheller



Northern Alberta and Banff



British Columbia



Vancouver Island & Coast



Lower Mainland - Southwest



Okanagan - Kootenay



Northern BC






Northwest Territories






Source: Service Canada Regional Occupational Outlooks in Canada, 2015-2017
*Due to data limitations, the territorial forecast represents employment for the entire Mining, Oil & Gas sector. (According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the share of employment in Mining and Quarrying within the larger sector represented about 38% in the Yukon, 80% in NWT, and 78% in Nunavut.)

Regional Overview

Many rural and remote communities depend on mining for their livelihood, even if not involved in primary production. However, the high cost of exploration and mine development and infrastructure deficits are challenges for investment.

  • Northern Manitoba: Hudbay Minerals launched two metal mining projects in northern Manitoba in 2014: the Reed copper mine and the Lalor Mine.Footnote 29 However in early 2016 Hudbay announced it would limit exploration to the Lalor mine in Snow Lake, but increase output. In the meantime, Hudbay suspended its miner training program in Flin Flon. Vale has shut down nickel smelting and refining activities in Thompson and indicated it would cease operations in Manitoba by 2018.Footnote 30
  • Saskatoon and Northern Saskatchewan: In 2015 Cameco's Cigar Lake mine in the Athabasca Basin was launched employing workers mainly from the northern part of the province. Cigar Lake is the world's second largest known high grade uranium deposit.Footnote 31 De Beers has staked a claim to the decommissioned Cluff Lake uranium mine in the Athabasca Basin for diamond exploration.Footnote 32 In 2016 Cameco halted uranium production at Rabbit Lake Mine laying off of 500 workers as a result of persistently low uranium prices.Footnote 33 Cameco is also reviewing its corporate headquarters staffing in Saskatoon.Footnote 34 Agrium, Saskatchewan's third largest potash producer, increased potash production at its Vanscoy facility in 2015 as a result of expansion.Footnote 35 However, Mosaic laid employees at Colonsay potash mine in 2015/16 due to persistent low demand and market prices.Footnote 36
  • Regina and Southern Saskatchewan: Vale suspended work on a potash mine at Kronau in late 2015 due to global price slumps.Footnote 37 However K+S Potash Legacy Mine is gearing up to hire workers at its new facility in Bethune, anticipating a rebound in Potash prices by the end of 2017.Footnote 38 Southern Saskatchewan holds nearly half of the world's potash reserves and accounts for over 90% of Canada's potash production.
  • Northern Alberta and Banff: Grand Cache Coal laid off workers in 2015 due to the decline in metallurgical coal prices. Mine operations in Grande Cache are expected to be for up to two years. Retailers in the town reported lower sales.Footnote 39 Ironstone Resources has delayed opening an iron mine and production plant near Fairview until 2021 while commodity prices recover.Footnote 40
  • Edmonton, Red Deer, Camrose and Drumheller: On the supply side, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council granted $1.65M over 6 years for a new Diamond Exploration Research and Training School at the University of Alberta in Edmonton towards specialized training for geoscientists.Footnote 41
  • Calgary and Southern Alberta: The town of Hanna is concerned about the government of Alberta hastening closure of a nearby coal mine and coal-fired plant.Footnote 42
  • Northern British Columbia (BC): The northeast region of BC has been adversely affected by declining coal prices. In 2014, four coal mine operations were suspended: The Quintette and Wolverine mines (Tumbler Ridge) and Brule and Brazion mines (near Chetwynd).Footnote 43 In 2016, Walter Energy filed for bankruptcy and put three coal mines in Chetwynd and Tumbler Ridge up for sale.Footnote 44 Over 2015/16, Taseko's Gibraltar copper-molybdenum mine (near Williams Lake) reduced its workforce as a result of declining copper prices.Footnote 45,Footnote 46 After suspending production in 2014, Thompson Creek Metals placed its Endako molybdenum mine on care and maintenance in 2015.Footnote 47 Imperial Metals announced that the Huckleberry mine (near Houston) will shut down in 2016 as copper prices approach a seven-year low.Footnote 48 Imperial Metals laid off workers at Mount Polley copper-gold mine (near Likely) in 2015 as a result of a tailings pond breach in 2014.Footnote 49 However, in June 2016, the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines authorized the Mount Polley mine to return to full production.Footnote 50 The drop in coal production and shipment has also impacted Ridley Terminals, a crown corporation, in Prince Rupert where coal from Northeastern BC is shipped for export.Footnote 51
  • Okanagan-Kootenay: The Kootenay region is home to Teck Resources metallurgical coalfield Fording River operations, near Elkford. In 2015, Teck Resources laid off workers in its Highland Valley Copper mine (near Logan Lake) and is expected to close its Coal Mountain mine (near Sparwood) in 2017.Footnote 52,Footnote 53 Two proposed projects by other mining firms: Ajax Copper Gold (Kamloops) and Harper Creek Mine (near Chu Chua) will likely be on hold until commodity metal prices rise.Footnote 54
  • Vancouver Island and Coast: Nystar's Myra Falls zinc and copper mine (near Campbell River) has been idling since 2015 as owners wait for commodity prices to go up.Footnote 55 Hillsborough Resources suspended operations at Quinsam mine due to low thermal coal prices.Footnote 56
  • Lower Mainland-Southwest: The Lower-Mainland region is a global leader for mineral exploration expertise. There are approximately 1,200 exploration companies headquartered in BC, with the majority located in Vancouver.Footnote 57
  • Nunavut: Most exploration investment targets precious metals in the region. Agnico Eagle's Meadowbank gold mine in the Kivalliq region was the company's largest gold producer in 2015. Many workers at this operation are on a fly-in, fly-out basis.Footnote 58 Anginco Eagle has a Development Partnership Agreement with the government of Nunavut for jobs and investment. However the life of the mine is expected to end in 2018.Footnote 59 Baffinland opened the Mary River mine on northern Baffin Island in 2014, but cut wages by 10% in response to low global iron ore prices in 2015.Footnote 60 TMAC Resources discovered three gold deposits at Hope Bay that could turn into a mining operation for the next 20 years starting in 2016. The Doris North gold mine will likely become Nunavut's second operating gold mine with benefits for the Kitikmeot Inuit Association and Inuit in the region by 2017.Footnote 61 Mining companies in Nunavut increased their exploration spending by over 30% in 2015.Footnote 62
  • Yukon: A 2015 survey of mining companies found that Yukon was the number one spot for mineral potential, but 9th in terms of investment attractiveness.Footnote 63 There are only two active metals mine sites in the Yukon: Strata Gold's (Victoria Gold) Eagle Gold mine near Mayo and Capstone's Minto copper mine (near Marsh Lake).Footnote 64 Capstone Mining has slowed production and indicated that it may temporarily close the Minto Mine in 2017 due to low copper prices.Footnote 65 In 2015, the Wolverine zinc mine (near Watson Lake) suspended operations due to a sharp decline in zinc prices.Footnote 66 Gold mining activity in the Yukon decreased noticeably in 2015. Veris Gold abandoned its Ketza gold mine near Ross River in 2015 requiring the government of Yukon to take over the care and maintenance.Footnote 67
  • Northwest Territories: Northwest Territories (NWT), renowned for diamonds, has felt the effect of declining diamond prices. China, a major consumer of diamonds as jewellery, has slowed its demand for the commodity. However, work at new and existing diamond mines has soldiered through 2015. NWT Minister of Industry, Tourism and Investment indicated that diamond production contributes to 18% of the Territories' gross domestic product (GDP), creating thousands of jobs.Footnote 68 In 2015, diamond production shrank to 14.7% of GDP in NWT.Footnote 69 A 2014 Northwest Territories government survey found that the number of non-territorial residents working in diamond mines has almost doubled since 2009, while resident worker numbers rose 20%.Footnote 70 However, in late 2015, De Beers closed Snap Lake mine (North-east Yellowknife) and laid off 434 workers. By 2016, 96 of the Snap Lake affected workers were hired at Gahcho Kué diamond mine which is expected to be in production for 12 years.Footnote 71 North American Tungsten temporarily closed its Cantung Mine in Tungsten on the Yukon/ Northwest Territories border in 2015 due to low tungsten prices.Footnote 72 Dominion Diamond temporarily laid off workers at Ekati diamond mine in 2016 as a result of a fire.Footnote 73 Almost half of the workers at Ekati mine site live outside the territory.Footnote 74 Prairie Creek Mine (lead-zinc) temporarily closed in early 2016 as a result of low zinc prices.Footnote 75 Kennady Diamonds is planning to expand a camp northeast of Yellowknife by March 2017.Footnote 76 BHP Billiton has indicated that it will be investing $40M in a copper-zinc project on Somerset Island over a 9 year period.Footnote 77 In 2015, the Government of Northwest Territories issued its first ever call for bids for oil & gas exploration licences in the Central Mackenzie Valley.Footnote 78 The Territorial government is also developing a new Mineral Resources Act to increase the competitiveness for the mining sector.Footnote 79
Distribution of employment in the mining and quarrying sector across Western Canada (%) Mining and quarrying employment distribution - The data table for this figure is located below Source: Service Canada Regional Occupational Outlooks in Canada, 2015-2017
Note: Data for the Territories includes employment for the entire Mining, Oil & Gas sector. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the share of employment in Mining and Quarrying within the larger sector represented about 38% in the Yukon, 80% in NWT, and 78% in Nunavut.
Show data tableDistribution of employment in the forestry and logging sector sector across Western Canada (%)

Economic Region

Percent (%)

Southern Manitoba




Northern Manitoba


Regina & Southern Saskatchewan


Saskatoon & Northern Saskatchewan


Calgary & Southern Alberta


Edmonton, Red Deer, Camrose and Drumheller


Northern Alberta & Banff


Vancouver Island and Coast


Lower Mainland - Southwest


Okanagan - Kootenay


Northern BC




Northwest Territories





In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Service Canada, Region of Western Canada and the Territories
For further information, please contact the LMI team


Footnote 1

Natural Resources Canada. Exploration Plus Deposit Appraisal Expenditures, by Province and Territory, 2011 - 2014 Annual, 2015 Preliminary Estimates and 2016 Spending Intentions. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 2

Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey. Annual Average Industry Employment for Alberta for Mining (except Oil and Gas) & Mix Mining [3 digit NAIC by Province Custom Table for Service Canada.] [Note: Survey of Employment Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), (Cansim Table 281-0036), has no data is available at the 3-digit NOC "Mining, quarrying (except oil and gas)" because of reliability or suppression]

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Footnote 3

Mining Industry Human Resources Council. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 4

Statistics Canada. Cansim Table 379-0030 (accessed July 22, 2016). [Note: Support activities for mining and oil and gas extraction (NAICS 313) is not included in this sector profile. The figure provided does not include the territories as no data was available.]

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Natural Resources Canada. 2015. Exploration Plus Deposit Appraisal Expenditures by Province and Territory. (accessed July 22, 2016)

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

The World Bank. Commodity Markets Outlook - July 2016 (accessed July 20, 2016)

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Footnote 7

Consensus Economics. July 18, 2016. Minerals Monitor - Energy & Metals Consensus Forecast. [Note: Subscription required]

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

Consensus Economics. July 18, 2016. Minerals Monitor - Energy & Metals Consensus Forecast. [Note: Subscription required]

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Government of Manitoba. (accessed July 19, 2016)

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Footnote 10

The Fraser Institute. 2015. Survey of Mining Companies 2015. (accessed August 3, 2016)

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Footnote 11

Canadian Mining Journal. June 1, 2013. (accessed July 18, 2016)

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Footnote 12

Natural Resources Canada. 2014. Revised statistics of the mineral production of Canada by province. (accessed July 20, 2016)

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

The Fraser Institute. 2015. Survey of Mining Companies 2015. (accessed August 3, 2016)

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Footnote 14

The Saskatoon Star Phoenix. January 20, 2016. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 15

Careers in Coal. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 16

Alberta Energy. (accessed August 10, 2016)

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Footnote 17

CBC News. January 25, 2016. (accessed July 21, 2016)

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Footnote 18

Mining Association of Canada 2015. Facts & Figures 2015. (accessed July 21, 2016)

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Footnote 19

Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey. Annual Average Industry Employment for Alberta for Mining (except Oil and Gas) & Mix Mining [3 digit NAIC by Province, Custom Table for Service Canada.]

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Footnote 20

CBC News. March 11, 2015. (accessed Jul 22, 2016)

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Footnote 21

PR Associates. November 17, 2014. Aboriginal Canadians and their Support for the Mining Industry. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 22

Mining Industry Human Resources Council. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 23

Nunatsiaq Online. February 19, 2016. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 24

Conference Board of Canada. July 7, 2016. Canada's Mining, Oil and Gas Support Activities Industry: Industry Profile Spring 2016. [Note: Subscription required]

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Footnote 25

Canadian Mining Journal. 2015. Tough slugging for BC's coal miners. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 26

Consensus Economics. July 18, 2016. Minerals Monitor - Energy & Metals Consensus Forecast. [Note: Subscription required]

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Footnote 27

Consensus Economics. July 18, 2016. Minerals Monitor - Energy & Metals Consensus Forecast. [Note: Subscription required]

Return to footnote 27 referrer

Footnote 28

Saskatoon Star Phoenix. July 29, 2016. Saskatchewan economy continues to feel effects of weak mining sector. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 29

The Conference Board of Canada. September 12, 2014. Provincial Outlook Economic Forecast for Manitoba: Summer 2014. [Note: Subscription required]

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Footnote 30

Reuters. November 19, 2015. Vale to shut Manitoba nickel smelting, refining in 2018. (accessed July 21, 2016)

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Footnote 31

Saskatchewan Miing Association. Uranium - Cigar Lake Project. (accessed July 21, 2016)

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Footnote 32

Saskatoon Star Phoenix. May 19, 2016. De Beers eyes diamond exporation in northern Saskatchewan. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 33

Global News. April 22, 2016. Cameco cuts could be felt across Saskatchewan's mining sector.

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Footnote 34

Saskatoon Star Phoenix. April 29, 2016. Cameco to conduct staffing review at corporate HQ. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 35

The Star Phoneix. March 20, 2015. Mosaic says $1.7B expansion won't be affected by budget. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 36

Global News. July 13, 2016. Mosaic lays off hundreds at Colonsay, Sask. Potash mine. (accessed July 25, 2016)

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Footnote 37

Reginal Leader-Post. November 20, 2015. On-again, off-again Vale potash project at Kronau off agan. (accessed July 27, 2016)

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Footnote 38

CBC News. June 23, 2016. K + S Legacy mine in Saskatchewan nearing finish line. (accessed July 27, 2016)

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Footnote 39

CBC News. November 3, 2015. Grand Cache Coal closes mine, lays of 220 employees. (accessed July 21, 2016)

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Footnote 40

Peace County Sun. March 2, 2016. Ironstone mine delayed to 2021. (accessed July 22, 2016)

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Footnote 41

University of Alberta. April 14, 2016. Diamonds are forever. (accessed September 2, 2016)

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Footnote 42

CBC News. November 24, 2015. Alberta coal phase out would be 'devastating'to Town of Hanna. (accessed July 28, 2016)

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Footnote 43

Vancouver Sun. April 24, 2014. Coal mine closures a 'devastating shock' to Tumbler Ridge: mayor. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 44 January 17, 2016. Falling coal takes its toll - U.S. miner selling B.C. mines. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 45

The Williams Lake Tribune. January 19, 2015. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 46

The Williams Lake Tribune. March 8, 2016. Gibraltar Mine lays off 17 workers. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 47

Canadian Mining Journal. 2016. Thompson Creek puts suspended Endako mine on care and maintenance, updates Mount Milligan. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 48 Imperial Metals to shut its Huckleberry copper mine in BC. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 49

The Williams Lake Tribune. May 5, 2015. Mont Polley Mine lays off 120 workers. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 50

The Williams Lake Tribune. June 23, 2016. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 51

The Globe and Mail. November 18, 2015. Teck enduring worst financial squeeze since the recession. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 52

Kamlooops This Week. February 11, 2016. Highland Valley copper's profit drops in fourth quarter. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 53

The Globe and Mail. Jul 28, 2016. Teck Resources confident about Fort Hills oil sands financing. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 54

Central 1. August 2015. Economic Analys of British Columbia 35:4 Thompson - Okanagan Regional Economic Outlook. (accessed September 2, 2016)

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Footnote 55 October 23, 2015. 56 people left on site as Myra Falls mine lays off nearly 100 workers - Vancouver Island. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 56 January 13, 2016. Coal prices claim Quinsam coal mine on Vancouver Island. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 57

Mining Association of British Columbia. 2014. Mining Facts. (accessed September 26, 2014)

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Footnote 58

Agnico Eagle. December 31, 2015. Meadowbank. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 59

NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines. 2013-2016 (accessed September 9, 2016)

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Footnote 60

Nunatsiaq Online. September 29, 2015. Baffinland imposes 10-per-cent wage cut at Nunavut's Mary River iron mine. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 61

Nunatsiaq. April 25, 2016. TMAC's Nuanvut gold mine moves closer to start-up in 2017. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 62

Natural Resources Canada. March 2016. Canadian Mineral Exploration - Information Bulletin. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 63

CBC News. February 24, 2015. Yukon slips as attractive place to mine in Fraser Institute survey. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 64

Yukon Government - Energy Mines and Resrouces. 2015. Yukon Mining and Exploration Projects 2015 [interactive map] (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 65

CBC News. April 15, 2016. Yukon's Minto mine postpones layoffs until June (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 66

Yukon News. January 30, 2015. Yukon Zinc owes $3M in mine security. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 67

CBC News. April 21, 2015. Yukon's Ketza mine abandoned by Veris Gold. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 68

CBC News. October 27, 2015. Canada's once-booming Arctic diamond sector loses lustre. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 69

Statistics Canada. GDP at basic prices by NAICS, provinces and territories (Cansim 379-0030) (accessed September 9, 2016) [Note: Revised estimates of provincial-territorial GDP by industry, and by income and expenditure for 2013 to 2015 will be published in November 2016 by Statistics Canada]

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Footnote 70

CBC News. March 11, 2015. Number of non-N.W.T residents working at diamond mines almost doubles. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 71

CBC News. December 7, 2015. N.W.T. braces for economic sting of Snap Lake mine shutdown. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 72

CBC News. September 18, 2016. Cantung mine to close Oct. 27, says North American Tungsten. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 73

CBC News. July 4, 2016. More than 300 workers at risk of temporary layoffs at Ekati diamond mine. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 74

Northern News Service Online. April 15, 2015. [Note: Subscription required]

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Footnote 75

Northern News Service Online. December 21, 2015. [Note: Subscription required]

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Footnote 76

CBC News. March 21, 2016. Kennady Diamonds finds 6th kimberlite pipe at site near Gahcho Kue mine. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 77

Nunatsiaq. February 3, 2016. Mining giant BHP Billiton buys into Nunavut copper project. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 78

Government of Northwest Territories. January 30, 2015. Minister of ITI issues oil and gas call for bids. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Footnote 79

Government of Northwest Territories. March 10, 2016. Northwest Territories to develop homegrown mining regulations. (accessed August 5, 2016)

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Note: Map of Mines Actively Producing in NWT and Nunavut

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