Information and Culture: Ontario 2016-2018

Sectoral Profiles provide an overview of recent labour market developments and outlooks for key industries, for various regions of the country.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES CHALLENGE THE INFORMATION AND CULTURAL INDUSTRIES SECTOR

  • Employment in the information and cultural industries (IC) sector has declined over the last decade
  • The proliferation of new technologies is changing the sector, impacting each industry in different ways
  • Employment growth is likely to be challenged in certain industries, such as print media publishing, sound recording, broadcasting, and telecommunications
  • IC sector employment is expected to decline by 0.6% over the 2016 to 2018 period

The information and cultural industries (IC) sector is comprised of establishments who are primarily engaged in information publishing, motion picture and sound recording, broadcasting, telecommunications, and data processing, hosting and related services. Although the IC sector is comprised of a diverse group of industries, one commonality is that they all create and distribute copyrighted material.1 In addition, almost all of the industries in the IC sector are supported by public funding from all levels of government, including subsidies, loans, and tax-based credits.2

In 2015, the IC sector employed 150,900 people.3 Between 2006 and 2015, employment shrank by 23,100 (-13.3%).4 Even with this decline in employment, the unemployment rate, at 3.0% in 2015, is lower than the industrial average (6.8%).5 As of 2016, under half (47.2%) of the IC sector's employment was broadcasting and telecommunications.6 Over half (54.3%) of the sector's GDP was contributed by the telecommunications industry in 2015.7,8 In 2015, the IC sector made up 3.5% of Ontario's total GDP. Over the last decade, IC GDP grew by 5.5%, versus 11.7% for Ontario's economy as a whole.9 Most of this growth was in the software publishers industry (+37.7%).

The proliferation of new technologies is transforming the IC sector. Due to the range of impacts that technology is having on the various subsector within the IC sector, the discussion below is broken down by subindustry.

Publishing industries

Digitization slows demand for print media, but boosts software publishing

The digitization of news and the rising popularity of online media have dampened print media industry growth.10 Employment in the print media publishing industry group has been trending downward over the past decade, by 29.4% between 2006 and 2015.11 The prevalence and popularity of free online content has negatively affected paid circulation of print materials.12 In addition, as a result of lower readership, businesses are allocating fewer dollars to advertising space in print media.13,14 Historically, the industry group relied on advertising revenue.15 To offset the loss in circulation and advertising revenue, print publishers have attempted to monetize online content by offering premium content, such as select news articles, behind a paywall. Despite these attempts, free content continues to be popular. Although couriers (NOC 1513), who deliver print media, are likely to be affected by this trend, certain occupations, such as computer programmers and interactive media develops (NOC 2174), are likely to benefit from the growth of online content.

In contrast to the print media industry, the software publishers industry is quickly growing; employment increased by 113.9% between 2006 and 2015. In 2015, although less than a quarter of the publishing subsector's employment came from the software industry group16, the software publishing industry contributed 59.0% of the publishing subsector's total GDP. In addition, although over the 2006 to 2015 period, the publishing industry group's GDP shrank, the software publishers group's GDP grew by 37.7% in real terms.17,18

Part of this rise in software publishing is due to the expansion of personal devices and a preference for interactive media, such as 'apps' and video games.19 For example, to meet this demand, between 2013 and 2015, gross expenditures in the video game industry in Ontario grew by nearly 98%.20 The rise of 'big data' may also drive industry growth. Businesses in various industries are collecting data from many sources, including credit cards, mobile, and cloud platforms. Thus, they are requesting analytics software which is helping fuel industry growth.21 The 'big data' market is expected to nearly double by 2020 as investments in data services and infrastructure increase.22

Global demand is also driving industry growth; a large portion of Ontario's software is exported. For example, in 2015, according to an ESAC Industry Survey, video gaming companies reported 90% of their total revenue came from export sales.23 The United States accounted for the largest share of export revenue. Although fueling demand for software, the access to a global marketplace also adds challenges, including piracy and international competition.

Motion picture and sound recording industries

Streaming services challenge traditional offerings

Over the past decade, the expansion of broadband Internet and digital technology has also sparked a change in the consumption of television, film, and music. As households adopt personal entertainment devices, new platforms to download or stream online content, such as Netflix, Youtube, and Spotify, continue to gain popularity. Despite these changes, box office receipts, refreshments, and advertisement revenue streams for cinemas continue to grow.24,25 As a result, employment growth in motion picture and video industry has been relatively minimal over the last decade.

Industry growth is supported by foreign production spending as well. Ontario is home to a number of internationally-known film festivals, including the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF), which garners worldwide attention.26,27,28 In 2013, the economic activity generated by TIFF was estimated to be $189 million.29

Ontario is also the third largest production location in North America and attracts many projects from California and New York.30,31,32,33 The province has an intentional reputation for high-quality post-production and visual effects .34 In addition, the depreciating CAD may also attract more projects to the region. Countering these positive growth trends is competition with other jurisdictions. California recently increased tax credits in response to various states offering more competitive tax incentives, which may affect the relative affordability of Ontario for television and video production.35,36,37

In contrast to the motion picture and video exhibition industry, employment growth in sound recording industries appears to be stagnant.38 More consumers listen to licensed music through ad-supported free streaming sites, whereas CD sales have slumped.

Broadcasting industries

Innovative Internet-service providers elbow out conventional broadcasters

Online streaming has also affected broadcasters.39 Between 2006 and 2015, employment in broadcasting (excluding Internet) decreased by 7.2%. In Canada, the broadcasting subsector is fairly mature, with high penetration and limited opportunities for growth via new customers.40 Private conventional broadcasters have seen their share of total TV revenue shrink from nearly a third to less than a quarter since 2010 as specialty and pay-tv services have grown in popularity.41 Part of this decline in conventional television revenue is due to the increased popularity of Internet-based service providers, such as Netflix. In 2015, nearly half of English-speaking Canadians watched Netflix.42 Although broadcasters have attempted to create their own streaming services, this has so far been unsuccessful.43

Like the publishing industry, advertising is a large source of revenues for broadcasters. In Canada, revenues have continued to fall since 2011 while programming expenses increase.44 In 2014, profits declined by 22%.45 As a result, the TV landscape in Canada continues to consolidate. In January 2016, Corus announced plans to purchase assets from Shaw Media for $2.65 billion. If the transaction is approved, Corus will hold 34.5% of Canada's English TV viewership.46

Telecommunications industries

Businesses shift focuses from legacy services to newer technologies

Technology is also shaping the growth of the telecommunications subsector. Over the last decade, employment in telecommunications has declined by 22.7%.47 In Canada, revenue for newer services, such as wireless telephones, Internet, and data protocols (e.g. Ethernet and IP) have been increasing whereas revenue for older services, such as local calls, long-distance calls, landlines, and legacy data (e.g. frame relay) have all declined. Mobile phones are prevalent and are expected to eventually dominate usage. As of 2013, most homes had at least one cell phone48 and more than 20% of households had a cell phone as their sole form of telephone service.49 Furthermore, as businesses across Canada adopt mobile payment technology and other mobile capabilities, this may drive demand for telecommunications services. The development of e-health technologies and cloud computing are also likely to support the growth of the telecommunications industry.

Data processing, hosting, and related services and other information services industries

The popularity of digital technology offers new opportunities for libraries

Advances in technology have offered challenges and opportunities to the information services and data processing services industries subsector. On the one hand, the progression of technology may have resulted in improvements in productivity, reducing the demand for labour. On the other hand, these advances may also drive demand for services, such as libraries. Although the usage of academic libraries has declined, public library usage is up.50 Many libraries and archives are adopting new technologies, such as 3D printing, and new information and media formats, to draw in the public. As such, the Government of Ontario announced in 2014 that $10M over three years will be provided to the Ontario Libraries Capacity Fund to help libraries improve IT resources.51

Sector Outlook

The IC sector is expected to decline by 0.6% over the 2016 to 2018 period. The introduction of new technologies may continue to challenge some industries, such as print media publishing, sound recording, broadcasting, and telecommunications. Thus, we expect slight declines in employment over the forecast period.

Regional trends in the IC Sector

Across the province, broadcasting and news media publishing have been impacted by the adoption of technologies, including the big three telecom companies52,53,54,55 and large news media companies.56,57,58 Despite this challenge, the expansion of broadband internet in in 300 southwestern Ontario communities may support IC sector employment growth over the forecast period.59 In addition, telecommunications companies who provide newer services, such as mobile phones, may offer employment growth as well. For example, K-Mobile is planning a large expansion across Ontario, opening 250 new locations.60

Although the Toronto ER hosts a large number of telecommunications and broadcasting headquarters, ongoing structural changes do not bode well for these industries. On a more positive note, Bell Canada plans to invest an estimated $1.14B to launch its new internet service, Gigabit Fibe. The infrastructure project is expected to create around 2,400 jobs.61 Similarly, although the ER accounts for an above average share of the larger newspaper, periodical, book, and directory publishers in Ontario, structural changes in the industry may reduce opportunities in the forecast period.

On the other hand, Toronto has a strong presence of financial institutions and information technology firms, which may offer opportunities for employment growth in software publishing and data processing, hosting, and related services. The financial services industry manages large amounts of sensitive data, so with the increasing use of financial technology (FinTech) and the demand for security, employment growth may be necessary to meet these business needs. Microsoft Canada Inc. will open data centres in Toronto in 2016 to deliver commercial cloud services.62

Toronto is one of the largest screen-based production centres in North America and is the location of Canadian operations for a number of record labels. The region also benefits from hosting the Toronto International Film Festival. Thus, the motion picture and sound recording industries are likely to remain a bright spot for the IC Sector in the economic region. The Canadian Film Centre in Toronto has received $4M from the Government of Canada to advance the development and commercialization of digital media products, creating about 216 jobs.63

The Ottawa ER is has a large number of high technology firms and a large proportion of software publishing businesses.64 Business expansions and investments, alongside the opening of Ottawa's Innovation Centre at Bayview Yards, bodes well industry growth over the forecast period.65,66,67,68

In the Northern ERs, a number of picture deals and public funding are likely to support employment prospects over the forecast period in the film industry.69,70 In addition, the Ontario Government and the Governments of Canada are investing in broadband infrastructure across the Northeastern and Muskoka–Kawarthas ERs.71,72

The Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie and the Hamilton–Niagara ERs both have growing technology bases which could lend employment growth to the IC sector over the forecast period.73,74,75

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2012, January). North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/12-501-x/12-501-x2012001-eng.pdf

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Footnote 2

Historical Canada. (2013, December 16). Arts, Heritage and Cultural Industries Funding. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/arts-heritage-and-cultural-industries-funding/

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Footnote 3

LFS 2016, Custom Tables INDONT, as of August 1, 2016

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Footnote 4

LFS 2016, Custom Tables INDONT, as of August 1, 2016

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Footnote 5

LFS 2016, Custom Tables INDONT, as of August 1, 2016

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Footnote 6

LFS 2016, Custom Tables INDONT, as of August 1, 2016

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Footnote 7

2007 Chained dollars

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Footnote 8

Statistics Canada. Table 379-0030 - GDP at basic prices, by NAICS, provinces and territories, annual (dollars), CANSIM. (accessed: July 2016)

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Footnote 9

Ibid.

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Footnote 10

CBC News. (2016, September 30). Rogers to cut magazine print editions, sell some publications. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/rogers-magazines-1.3785707

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Footnote 11

Custom Tables (INDONT)

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Footnote 12

Bain & Company, Inc. (2011). Publishing in the Digital Era. Retrieved from http://www.bain.com/bainweb/PDFs/cms/Public/BB_Publishing_in_the_digital_era.pdf

Return to Footnote 12

Footnote 13

Ibid.

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Footnote 14

Ernst & Young. (2015, June 29). 2014 Actual + 2015 Estimated Canadian Internet Advertising Revenue Survey. Retrieved from http://iabcanada.com/annual-internet-advertising-revenue-reports/

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Footnote 15

Bain & Company, Inc. (2011). Publishing in the Digital Era. Retrieved from http://www.bain.com/bainweb/PDFs/cms/Public/BB_Publishing_in_the_digital_era.pdf

Return to Footnote 15

Footnote 16

Custom tables (Table 7); 2016 data is unavailable

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Footnote 17

Chained 2007 dollars

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Footnote 18

Statistics Canada. Table 379-0030 - GDP at basic prices, by NAICS, provinces and territories, annual (dollars), CANSIM. (accessed: July 2016)

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Footnote 19

Communications MDR. (2016, April). Environmental Scan of the Cultural Sector. Retrieved from https://www.ontario.ca/document/environmental-scan-culture-sector-ontario-culture-strategy-background-document

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Footnote 20

Nordicity. (2015). Canada's Video Game Industry in 2015. Retrieved from www.nordicity.com/media/20151210faaebhea.pdf

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Footnote 21

Burgess, S. (2014, March 6). Data analytics: Ottawa's new high-tech industry. CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/data-analytics-ottawa-s-new-high-tech-industry-1.2561502

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Footnote 22

Information and Communications Technology Council (ICTC). (2015). Big Data & the intelligence economy. Retrieved from http://www.ictc-ctic.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/big-data-2015.pdf

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Footnote 23

Nordicity. (2015). Canada's Video Game Industry in 2015. Retrieved from www.nordicity.com/media/20151210faaebhea.pdf

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Footnote 24

Ibid.

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Footnote 25

ERmResearch. (2015, June). Canadian Moviegoing Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.telefilm.ca/document/en/01/17/CanadaMoviegoing_2015_Summary.pdf

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Footnote 26

Nordicity Group, Ltd. (2013, July). The Economic Contribution of the Film and Television Sector in Canada. Retrieved from www.mpa-canada.org/wp.../MPA-Canada_Nordicity-Report_July-2013_English.pdf

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Footnote 27

Invest Toronto. (2016). Film and Television. Retrieved from http://www.investtoronto.ca/Business-Toronto/Key-Business-Sectors/Film-and-Television.aspx

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Footnote 28

Government of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Tourism Culture and Sport. (2013, September 5). Ontario Proud Partner of the Toronto International Film Festival. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/mtc/en/2013/09/ontario-proud-partner-of-the-toronto-international-film-festival.html

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Footnote 29

Invest Toronto. (2016). Film and Television. Retrieved from http://www.investtoronto.ca/Business-Toronto/Key-Business-Sectors/Film-and-Television.aspx

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Footnote 30

Communications MDR. (2016, April). Environmental Scan of the Cultural Sector. Retrieved from https://www.ontario.ca/document/environmental-scan-culture-sector-ontario-culture-strategy-background-document

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Footnote 31

Invest Toronto. (2016). Film and Television. Retrieved from http://www.investtoronto.ca/Business-Toronto/Key-Business-Sectors/Film-and-Television.aspx

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Footnote 32

Lam, Eric. (2015, September 9). Low loonie means Hollywood North is ready for its close-up again. The Financial Post. Retrieved from http://business.financialpost.com/news/economy/low-loonie-means-hollywood-north-ready-its-close-up

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Footnote 33

wC. (2015, March). Global Entertainment and Media Outlook 2014-2018. Retrieved from https://www.key4biz.it/files/000271/00027176.pdf

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Footnote 34

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport. (2013, September 5). Ontario Proud Partner of the Toronto International Film Festival. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/mtc/en/2013/09/ontario-proud-partner-of-the-toronto-international-film-festival.html

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Footnote 35

The Economist. (2015, June 20). The Empire strikes back. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21654641-california-bets-more-generous-tax-credits-keep-its-cameras-rolling-empire-strikes

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Footnote 36

Jared Mayer, J. (2016, February 26). No Matter Who Wins at the Oscars, Taxpayers Lose on Film Subsidies.reason.com. Retrieved from http://reason.com/archives/2016/02/26/no-matter-who-wins-at-the-oscars-taxpaye

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Footnote 37

Government of Ontario, Ontario Media Development Corporation. (2015, March 20). Industry Profiles: Film and Television. Retrieved from http://www.omdc.on.ca/collaboration/research_and_industry_information/industry_profiles/Film___TV_Industry_Profile.htm

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Footnote 38

Custom tables (Table 7); 2016 data is unavailable

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Footnote 39

Szklarski, C. (2015, March 27). 'You Could Call It Desperation': Networks Rehash Old Shows In Battle With Streaming Media. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/05/27/tv-networks-face-steep-co_n_7454262.html

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Footnote 40

Government of Ontario, Ontario Media Development Corporation. (2015, March 20). Industry Profiles: Film and Television. Retrieved from http://www.omdc.on.ca/collaboration/research_and_industry_information/industry_profiles/Film___TV_Industry_Profile.htm

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Footnote 41

The Canadian Press. (2015, August 25). Canadian Broadcasters' Profits Shrink 20% As Streaming And Mobile Move In. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/08/25/tv-ad-sales-drop-for-third-straight-year-as-broadcasters-profit-slides_n_8038420.html

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Footnote 42

Government of Ontario, Ontario Media Development Corporation. (2015, March 20). Industry Profiles: Film and Television. Retrieved from http://www.omdc.on.ca/collaboration/research_and_industry_information/industry_profiles/Film___TV_Industry_Profile.htm

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Footnote 43

The Canadian Press. (2016, September 26). Web streaming service Shomi to shut down as of Nov. 30. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/entertainment/shomi-shut-down-1.3779675

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Footnote 44

Ibid.

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Footnote 45

The Canadian Press. (2015, August 25). Canadian Broadcasters' Profits Shrink 20% As Streaming And Mobile Move In. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/08/25/tv-ad-sales-drop-for-third-straight-year-as-broadcasters-profit-slides_n_8038420.html

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Footnote 46

Bradshaw, J. and Dobby, C. (2016, January 13). Corus prepares for shifting TV market with Shaw Deal. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/corus-acquires-shaw-media-for-265-billion/article28140989/

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Footnote 47

Custom tables (Table 7); 2016 data is unavailable

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Footnote 48

Statistics Canada. Table 203-0027 - Survey of household spending (SHS), dwelling characteristics and household equipment at time of interview, Canada, regions and provinces, annual (number unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database). (accessed: 2016, October 6)

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Footnote 49

Government of Canada, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (2015, October 22). Communications Monitoring Report 2015: Canada's Communications System: An Overview for Citizens, Consumers, and Creators. Retrieved from http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/policymonitoring/2015/cmr2.htm

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Footnote 50

Lumos Research. (2011, April). An Analysis of Public Library Trends. Retrieved from http://www.culc.ca/cms_lib/CULC%20Public%20Library%20Trends-es.pdf

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Footnote 51

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport. Investing in Ontario's Public Libraries. Retrieved from http://news.ontario.ca/mtc/en/2014/10/investing-in-ontarios-public-libraries-1.html?utm_source=digest&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=p

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Footnote 52

Lewis, M. (2015, May 7). Omni drops multi-language newscasts as impact of streaming services is felt. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/business/2015/05/07/omni-drops-multi-language-newscasts-as-impact-of-streaming-services-is-felt.html

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Footnote 53

The Canadian Press. (2016, January 25). Rogers to cut 200 media and admin jobs. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/business/2016/01/25/rogers-to-cut-200-media-and-admin-jobs.html

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Footnote 54

The Canadian Press. (2015, November 5). Telus to cut 1,500 jobs but hike dividend 5%. CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/telus-to-cut-1-500-jobs-but-hike-dividend-10-1.3305210

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Footnote 55

The Canadian Press. (2016, September 26). Web streaming service Shomi to shut down as of Nov. 30. CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/bell-notice-layoffs-montreal-toronto-1.3307171

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Footnote 56

The Canadian Press. (2013, March 4). Toronto Star to cut 55 jobs, considers outsourcing layout. CTV News. http://www.ctvnews.ca/business/toronto-star-to-cut-55-jobs-considers-outsourcing-layout-1.1181297

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Footnote 57

Bradshaw, J. (2016, August 9). Torstar cuts 52 jobs, drastically reducing tablet edition staff. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/torstar-cuts-52-jobs-drastically-reducing-staff-working-on-tablet-edition/article31334549/

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Footnote 58

CBC News. (2015, February 13). Sun News Network shuts down. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/sun-news-network-shuts-down-1.2955853

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Footnote 59

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Infrastructure. (20169, July 26). Ultra-High Speed Internet Coming to 300 Communities in Southwestern Ontario. Retrieved from http://news.ontarionewsroom.com/moi/en/2016/07/ultra-high-speed-internet-coming-to-300-communities-in-southwestern-ontario.html

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Footnote 60

Digital Home. (2016, August 8). K-Mobile Launches With New Smartphone and Opens Flagship Store in Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.digitalhome.ca/2016/08/k-mobile-launches-with-new-smartphone-and-opening-of-flagship-store-in-ontario/

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Footnote 61

CBC News. (2015, June 25). Bell promises to bring fastest internet possible to Toronto. Retrieved from Http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/bell-promises-to-bring-fastest-internet-possible-to-toronto-1.3127407

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Footnote 62

CBC News. (2015, June 2). Microsoft to build 2 new data centres in Toronto and Quebec City. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/microsoft-to-build-2-new-data-centres-in-toronto-and-quebec-city-1.3096743

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Footnote 63

Government of Canada, Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario. Government of Canada Supports Partnerships and Advancement of Digital Media Technology. Retrieved from http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1027319

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Footnote 64

City of Ottawa. Economy and Demographics. (2006). Retrieved from: http://ottawa.ca/en/city-hall/budget-and-taxes/financial-reports-and-statements/long-range-financial-plans/long-range-6

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Footnote 65

OBJ Staff. (2016, May 5). Assent Compliance lands KO with $20 million in venture capital funding. Ottawa Bttawa Sun. usiness Journal. Retrieved from http://www.obj.ca/Technology/2016-05-05/article-4519593/Assent-Compliance-lands-KO-with-20-million-in-venture-capital-funding/1

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Footnote 66

Bagnall, James. Shopify to triple size of Ottawa headquarters. Ottawa Sun. Retrieved from: http://www.ottawasun.com/2017/03/20/shopify-to-triple-size-of-ottawa-headquarters

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Footnote 67

Feibel, Adam. Investors bullish on Ottawa tech scene. Ottawa Business Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.obj.ca/Technology/2016-01-15/article-4405209/Investors-bullish-on-Ottawa-tech-scene%0D%0A/1

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Footnote 68

Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario, Government of Canada. FedDev Ontario Supports Innovative Initiatives at the Innovation Centre at Bayview Yards. Retrieved from: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=advSrch&crtr.mnthndVl=&crtr.mnthStrtVl=&crtr.page=1&nid=1085179&crtr.yrndVl=&crtr.kw=innovation&crtr.yrStrtVl=&crtr.dyStrtVl=&crtr.dyndVl

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Footnote 69

Myers, E. (2016, May 31). Multi-picture deal means steady film work for the next three years. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from https://www.sudbury.com/local-news/multi-picture-deal-means-steady-film-work-for-the-next-three-years-307480

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Footnote 70

Government of Ontario, Office of the Premier. (2016, August 6). Ontario Supporting Film and TV Jobs Across Northern Ontario. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/08/ontario-supporting-film-and-tv-jobs-across-northern-ontario.html

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Footnote 71

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. (2016, June 16). Ontario Supporting Broadband Expansion in Northwestern Ontario. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/mndmf/en/2016/06/ontario-supporting-broadband-expansion-in-northwestern-ontario.html?utm_source=digest&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=p

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Footnote 72

Cooper, B. (2015, July 2). MP announces infrastructure funding for high-speed Internet. Muskokaregion.com. Retrieved from http://www.muskokaregion.com/news-story/5706102-mp-announces-infrastructure-funding-for-high-speed-internet/

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Footnote 73

Greater Barrie Chamber of Commerce. (2014). Regional Economic Outlook: Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie. Retrieved from: http://barriechamber.com/2014/REO2014_GBCC_r1.pdf

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Footnote 74

Hamilton Economic Development Office, The City of Hamilton. (2013). Information and Communication Technology / Digital Media. Retrieved from: http://www.investinhamilton.ca/key-industries/information-communication-technology-digital-media/

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Footnote 75

Invest in Ontario. (2014) Niagara's tech industry is building a name in interactive digital media. Retrieved from http://www.investinontario.com/case-studies/niagaras-tech-industry-building-name-interactive-digital-media

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