Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: December 2017

The Quarterly Edition of the Labour Market Bulletin is a look back over the past three months, providing an analysis of quarterly Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.

Overview

Labour Force Trends - Employment jumped in Ontario in the fourth quarter of 2017

  • Employment increased by 68,300 in the province in the fourth quarter of 2017
  • Job gains were solely in full-time (+77,600) work
  • The unemployment rate inched down to 5.6%

Employment surged by 68,300 in Ontario in the fourth quarter of 2017. This was the fifth quarter in a row that the province saw positive results. Gains in full-time (+77,600) work offset losses in part-time (-9,200) employment during this three-month period. Both employment and participation rates inched up by 0.3 percentage points over the past two quarters. For the younger workers, the unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 rose by a percentage point to 11.1% in the fourth quarter.

Employment grew by 128,600 in Canada in the fourth quarter of 2017. Employment rose each month over the quarter with the bulk of the gains seen in November and December. The job market ended the year on a high-note and beat the forecast of many analysts. Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta recorded the biggest quarterly increases while Saskatchewan and Manitoba saw a decline. The national unemployment rate trickled down to 6.0% over this three-month period. The quarterly unemployment rate has trended downwards since the third quarter of 2016.

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 148,000 in the United States in December 2017.1 This gain fell short of expectations, which hovered closer to the 190,000 mark. Though December was a slower month, an upward revision to November's job tally pushed the quarterly employment gain to 204,000. The unemployment rate held steady at just 4.1% for the third straight month. Another bright spot for the American labour market was the uptick in average hourly earnings by 0.3 per cent in December 2017.

Employment grew by 168,700 in Ontario between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017. All of the job gains were in full-time work. The unemployment rate edged down by 0.7 percentage points, and the participation rate inched up slightly over this period as well.

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally Adjusted Quarterly Data 4th Quarter 2017 3rd Quarter 2017 4th Quarter 2016 Quarterly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,756.7 11,708.3 11,580.8 48.4 0.4 175.9 1.5
Labour Force ('000) 7637.4 7579.4 7514.3 58.0 0.8 123.1 1.6
Employment ('000) 7206.9 7138.6 7038.2 68.3 1.0 168.7 2.4
    Full-Time ('000) 5848.5 5770.9 5677.7 77.6 1.3 170.8 3.0
    Part-Time ('000) 1358.5 1367.7 1360.4 -9.2 -0.7 -1.9 -0.1
Unemployment ('000) 430.5 440.8 476.1 -10.3 -2.3 -45.6 -9.6
Unemployment Rate 5.6 5.8 6.3 -0.2 - -0.7 -
Participation Rate (%) 65.0 64.7 64.9 0.3 - 0.1 -
Employment Rate (%) 61.3 61.0 60.8 0.3 - 0.5 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Ontario quarterly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Show data table: Ontario quarterly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Unemployment Rate (%) Employment ('000)
3Q2011 7.7 6,676.5
4Q2011 7.9 6,667.5
1Q2012 7.8 6,673.9
2Q2012 7.9 6,693.3
3Q2012 7.9 6,707.4
4Q2012 8.1 6,740.6
1Q2013 7.8 6,781.1
2Q2013 7.6 6,815.2
3Q2013 7.5 6,843.3
4Q2013 7.5 6,850.4
1Q2014 7.4 6,856.4
2Q2014 7.3 6,865.4
3Q2014 7.3 6,884.5
4Q2014 6.9 6,903.1
1Q2015 6.9 6,894.1
2Q2015 6.6 6,918.2
3Q2015 6.7 6,937.6
4Q2015 6.8 6,945.1
1Q2016 6.7 6,979.9
2Q2016 6.6 6,995.7
3Q2016 6.6 6,984.9
4Q2016 6.3 7,038.2
1Q2017 6.3 7,074.5
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario quarterly employment growth. The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Show data table
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario Canada
4Q2011 -0.1% 0.0%
1Q2012 0.1% 0.1%
2Q2012 0.3% 0.9%
3Q2012 0.2% 0.2%
4Q2012 0.5% 0.5%
1Q2013 0.6% 0.3%
2Q2013 0.5% 0.3%
3Q2013 0.4% 0.2%
4Q2013 0.1% 0.2%
1Q2014 0.1% 0.1%
2Q2014 0.1% 0.0%
3Q2014 0.3% 0.2%
4Q2014 0.3% 0.3%
1Q2015 -0.1% 0.2%
2Q2015 0.3% 0.2%
3Q2015 0.3% 0.3%
4Q2015 0.1% 0.1%
1Q2016 0.5% 0.1%
2Q2016 0.2% 0.2%
3Q2016 -0.2% 0.2%
4Q2016 0.8% 0.6%
1Q2017 0.5% 0.5%
2Q2017 0.1% 0.4%
3Q2017 0.9% 0.4%
4Q2017 1.0% 0.7%
Ontario Quarterly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally Adjusted Data 4th Quarter 2017 (%) 3rd Quarter 2017 (%) 4th Quarter 2016 (%) Quarterly Variation
(% points)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Total 6.4 6.6 6.8 -0.2 -0.4
25 years and over 5.1 5.3 5.5 -0.2 -0.4
Men - 25 years and over 5.2 5.4 5.6 -0.2 -0.4
Women - 25 years and over 5.1 5.1 5.5 0.0 -0.4
15 to 24 years 13.7 14.3 14.1 -0.6 -0.4
Men - 15 to 24 years 14.5 16.1 15.8 -1.6 -1.3
Women - 15 to 24 years 12.9 12.5 12.4 0.4 0.5

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

A look at labour market conditions for Ontario's Indigenous People

The off-reserve Indigenous population made up 2.1% of Ontario’s total population in December 2017. The labour market for Indigenous people saw stronger results in the fourth quarter of 2017. Employment grew by 10,200 between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017, with gains in both full-time and part-time work. The unemployment rate for Indigenous people increased by 1.3 percentage points to 9.4%, as more individuals joined the labour force. Further, the participation rate for the Indigenous population rose to 64.1%, and sits just below the figure for the non-Indigenous population.  

There were positive announcements this quarter targeted towards the Indigenous community. Whitesand First Nation will receive a total investment of $3.76M from the federal and provincial governments to develop a cogeneration power plant and wood pellet manufacturing facility.2 The project will lead to 64 jobs and 60 seasonal positions. Atikameksheng Anishnawbek First Nation will also receive $2.6M from the Government of Canada to train 50 Indigenous youth and women across the Greater Sudbury Area on various aspects of mining.3 In addition, construction is underway on a 117km transmission line that will connect Pikangikum First Nation to the provincial power grid. Other remote communities will connect to the power line as the network expands and the project should wrap up in late 2018.4

Ontario - Labour Market Indicators for Indigenous People
3-month moving averages
Seasonally unadjusted data
Indigenous Yearly variation
Indigenous
Non-Indigenous Yearly variation
non-Indigenous
Q4 2017 Q4 2016 number % Q4 2017 Q4 2016 number %
Population 15 + ('000) 249.5 239.5 10.0 4.2 11,507.2 11,341.4 165.8 1.5
Labour Force ('000) 159.9 146.5 13.4 9.1 7,437.5 7,318.9 118.6 1.6
Employment ('000) 144.8 134.6 10.2 7.6 7,065.5 6,902.8 162.7 2.4
    Full-Time ('000) 104.0 102.1 1.9 1.9 5,712.1 5,543.3 168.8 3.0
    Part-Time ('000) 40.8 32.4 8.4 25.9 1,353.5 1,359.4 -5.9 -0.4
Unemployment ('000) 15.1 11.9 3.2 26.9 372.0 416.1 -44.1 -10.6
Unemployment Rate 9.4 8.1 1.3 - 5.0 5.7 -0.7 -
Participation Rate 64.1 61.2 2.9 - 64.6 64.5 0.1 -
Employment Rate 58.0 56.2 1.8 - 61.4 60.9 0.5 -

Notes: The Labour Force Survey excludes those living on-reserve.

            Estimates are based on three-month moving averages.

            Totals may not add due to rounding.

            Totals may be different from other tables due to adjustments done to indigenous statistics in the Labour Force Survey.

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey - ESDC custom table.

Employment by industry

Employment in the goods-producing sector increased in the fourth quarter of 2017

Employment in Ontario's goods-producing sector rose by 31,600 in the fourth quarter of 2017. The largest employment gains were in construction (+15,300) and manufacturing (+14,800). The only employment loss was in forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil, and gas.

Ontario's construction industry accounted for the majority of job gains in the goods-producing sector in the fourth quarter of 2017. Residential activity picked up throughout the province, as housing starts were up 65.5% in November 2017 over the year before.5 This was driven by multiple-unit dwelling starts, which increased by 151.5% over the year. In the Greater Toronto Area, demand remains high for multi-unit developments in the face of lower single-family home sales6 and slowing price growth.7 During this quarter, a number of high-rise construction projects got underway across Ontario including the Canvas Condominium in Toronto,8 a retirement residence in Stittsville,9 and the Wesley Tower in Mississauga.10

Investment in non-residential activity continued to grow.11 Work moved ahead on major projects such as the 35,000-sq.-ft. OPP Communications Centre in London,12 the Confederation GO Station in east Hamilton,13 and the Cooksville GO Station in Mississauga.14 There are also a couple of large infrastructure developments in the pipeline. The provincial and federal governments announced that they would contribute up to $69.2M combined to install fibre optic cable that will bring high-speed internet service to five remote Indigenous communities in northern Ontario.15 Further, Valard Poweline Contractor has been selected as the project manager for the $777M East-West Tie Transmission Project in northwestern Ontario. Work will start in late 2018 and will create as many as 700 construction-related jobs as well as other indirect service and supply positions.16

There was a notable employment expansion in the manufacturing industry in the fourth quarter of 2017. Manufacturing sales were up 4.3% in October 2017 compared to the year before.17 There were large investment announcements this quarter that will lift employment over the next few years. NOVA Chemicals Corporation announced that it would invest more than $2B to expand production in Sarnia-Lambton, which is expected to create 145 jobs by 2021.18 MHI Canada Aerospace Inc. will spend about $36.2M in its Mississauga facility, which will lead to 90 jobs by 2021.19 As well, Canada Royal Milk ULC will spend over $225M to build a baby formula production facility in Kingston, which will generate as many as 277 jobs by 2020.20 In other manufacturing news, Streit Manufacturing Inc. will open an armoured vehicle production facility in Midland that will create between 75 and 120 jobs.21 Eclipse Automation Inc. will also add a sixth location in Cambridge that will lead to more than 120 jobs.22 However, there were a couple of layoff announcements in the industry. Firestone Fibers & Textiles Company began to wind down operations at its plant in Woodstock, which will affect about 170 employees,23 and Reynolds Consumer Products closed an aluminum foil plant in Toronto that eliminated 100 positions.24

Employment in the goods-producing sector grew by 41,600 between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017. The strongest annual quarterly gain was in manufacturing (+37,800), followed by construction (+11,000). Smaller loses were seen in agriculture (-5,100) and utilities (-3,400).

Employment in the services-producing sector up in the fourth quarter of 2017

The services-producing sector saw employment advance by 36,700 in the fourth quarter of 2017. The largest increases were in educational services (+16,400), accommodation and food services (+14,200), and wholesale and retail trade (+13,100). Losses were seen in health care and social assistance (-16,700) and business, building and other support service (-13,900).

The educational services industry led employment growth in the services-producing sector. A number of school boards announced recruitment campaigns due to higher than expected elementary-school enrollment. This included the Bruce Grey Catholic District School Board,25 the Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board,26 and the Keewatin-Patricia District School Board.27 Drive Test locations across the province will ramp up hiring as well.28

In the accommodation and food services industry, key announcements included the expansion of Copper Branch into Ontario,29 and The Cheesecake Factory's first Canadian restaurant inside Toronto's Yorkdale Shopping Centre.30 Montana's BBQ & Bar also opened a restaurant in Alliston, with plans to employ between 80 and 100 workers.31

Although employment in the health care and social assistance industry declined in the fourth quarter, a number of provincial investments may bode well for the industry. The Government of Ontario announced that it would invest $140M to provide 2,000 more hospital beds and enhance home-care services. 32 This includes plans to reopen and repurpose the University Health Network's former Hillcrest site and the Humber River Hospital's former Finch site in Toronto. In addition, the Government of Ontario will build 100 EarlyON Child and Family Centres across the province over the next three years. 33 The $140M annual investment will lead to hundreds of new positions.

Since the fourth quarter of 2016, employment in the services-producing sector has risen by 127,100. Industry gains were strongest in wholesale and retail trade (+65,500), professional, scientific and technical services (+44,500), and transportation and warehousing (+23,900). Losses were most pronounced in business, building and other support services (-23,500) and educational services (-5,400).

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally Adjusted Data ('000) 4th Quarter 2017 3rd Quarter 2017 4th Quarter 2016 Quarterly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 7,206.9 7,138.6 7,038.2 68.3 1.0 168.7 2.4
Goods-producing sector 1,462.3 1,430.7 1,420.7 31.6 2.2 41.6 2.9
Agriculture 68.4 68.0 73.5 0.4 0.6 -5.1 -6.9
Forestry, fishing, mining,
quarrying, oil and gas
35.2 35.3 34.0 -0.1 -0.3 1.2 3.5
Utilities 47.0 45.9 50.4 1.1 2.4 -3.4 -6.7
Construction 528.0 512.7 517.0 15.3 3.0 11.0 2.1
Manufacturing 783.6 768.8 745.8 14.8 1.9 37.8 5.1
Services-producing sector 5,744.6 5,707.9 5,617.5 36.7 0.6 127.1 2.3
Trade 1,091.6 1,078.5 1,026.1 13.1 1.2 65.5 6.4
Transportation and warehousing 350.6 347.3 326.7 3.3 1.0 23.9 7.3
Finance, insurance, real
estate and leasing
558.4 557.5 558.8 0.9 0.2 -0.4 -0.1
Professional, scientific
and technical services
641.9 639.9 597.4 2.0 0.3 44.5 7.4
Business, building
and other support services
303.2 317.1 326.7 -13.9 -4.4 -23.5 -7.2
Educational services 500.1 483.7 505.5 16.4 3.4 -5.4 -1.1
Health care and social
assistance
862.6 879.3 845.2 -16.7 -1.9 17.4 2.1
Information, culture and
reccreation
321.4 314.9 323.7 6.5 2.1 -2.3 -0.7
Accommodation and food
services
464.0 449.8 463.3 14.2 3.2 0.7 0.2
Other services 281.1 270.3 282.7 10.8 4.0 -1.6 -0.6
Public administration 369.8 369.6 361.5 0.2 0.1 8.3 2.3

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional analysis

Toronto at the forefront of employment growth in Ontario in the fourth quarter of 2017

Employment surged by 139,300 in the Toronto economic region between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017 (measured on a year-over-year, seasonally unadjusted basis). The regional unemployment rate dipped to 5.4%, and the participation rate increased to 66.3%. The region's technology and innovation hub continued to thrive as it received another major boost in the fourth quarter. Thomson Reuters Corporation announced that it would invest $100M towards a permanent technology centre in Toronto.34 The media company plans to expand its workforce to 400 staff by the end of 2018 and double that figure in 2019. Waterfront Toronto also announced that it would work with Google's Sidewalk Labs to transform part of the City's eastern waterfront into a technology-driven urban district.35 The high-tech neighbourhood, known as Sidewalk Toronto, will be a test environment for the smart city concept that uses technology to guide daily operations. Sustained growth in this field has pushed commercial vacancy rates down in the City, as technology firms now occupy about 4.2 per cent of all office space in the downtown core.36

Labour market conditions remained strong in the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula economic region. Employment increased by 19,700 in the fourth quarter of 2017 and the regional unemployment rate fell to just 4.8%. All of the job gains were in full-time work as well. The construction industry has been a significant driver of growth in the region.37 The total number of housing starts rose in both the Hamilton and Brantford Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) over the first eleven months of 2017 compared to the same period in 2016.38 This increase came entirely from gains in multi-unit housing. The Hamilton CMA has also seen a sharp rise in the total value of building permits between October 2016 and October 2017.39 Some of the larger projects to move forward this quarter include an affordable housing complex in downtown St. Catharines40, and the expansion of the Emblem Cannabis plant in Paris worth $7.4M.41

Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie had another solid showing with an employment gain of 18,700 between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017. The unemployment rate fell to 4.0%, the lowest among all of the economic regions in the province. There was a fair bit of activity in the local manufacturing industry in the fourth quarter. HP Polymers Ltd. announced that it would invest $1.7M to expand its Puslinch facility;42 Weber Manufacturing Technologies announced that it would invest $7.9M to increase capacity at its Midland plant;43 and MiTek Canada announced that it would open a larger manufacturing facility in Bradford in 2019.44

Employment rose in the Windsor–Sarnia and Stratford–Bruce Peninsula economic regions. The Windsor auto-motive base continued to perform well while the Stratford area continued to benefit from future work at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station. PCS Company opened a distribution centre in Tecumseh to supply the plastic and die cast industries,45 and IAT Global announced that it would build a facility in Chatham to serve the automotive technology market.46 In Stratford-Bruce, SNC-Lavalin Group Inc. opened an office in Port Elgin and Kinectrics Inc. opened a facility in the Bruce Energy Centre, both in preparation for the nuclear refurbishment project.

The Northwest and Northeast economic regions saw employment gains in the fourth quarter of 2017 as well. In wood product manufacturing, Nakina Lumber Inc. announced that it would re-start sawmill operations49 and Obishikokaang Resources Corporation announced that it plans to expand production in Lac Seul First Nation to keep up with demand.50 There was also news that CannAssist Canada will build a medicinal marijuana facility in Kapuskasing in 2018.51

Meanwhile, employment was relatively stable in London and Ottawa between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017.

Employment growth remained weak in parts of eastern Ontario in the fourth quarter of 2017

The Kingston–Pembroke region saw the largest drop in employment with a loss of 15,900 between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017. At the same time, the regional unemployment rate climbed 0.3 percentage points to 4.6%. Some of the larger layoff announcements that rippled throughout the province in the fourth quarter will have a noticeable impact in the region. The closure of Sears Canada Inc. could lead to more than 650 job losses in Belleville between retail and warehouse operations.52 Further, the decision by Postmedia Network Inc. and Torstar Corporation to cease multiple newspapers resulted in the loss of two local Kingston publications and more than a dozen full-time jobs.53

Elsewhere in the province, the Muskoka–Kawarthas economic region saw a drop in employment of 7,600. The unemployment rate also rose from 3.9% to 5.0% between the fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017. Despite this decline, the region received a major announcement that should boost the labour market in the coming months. FV Pharma Inc. announced that it would purchase the former Kraft Canada Inc. plant in Cobourg to produce medicinal marijuana.55 The company expects to hire 150 staff by the end of the year and up to 1,200 over the next five years.

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
Seasonally Unadjusted Data Employment Unemployment Rate
4th Quarter 2017
('000)
4th Quarter 2016
('000)
Yearly Variation
(%)
4th Quarter 2017
(%)
4th Quarter 2016
(%)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Ontario 7213.4 7041.6 2.4 5.1 5.7 -0.6
Economic Regions
Ottawa 703.2 703.0 0.0 4.8 5.3 -0.5
Kingston--Pembroke 205.0 220.9 -7.2 4.6 4.3 0.3
Muskoka--Kawarthas 180.7 188.3 -4.0 5.0 3.9 1.1
Toronto 3,509.9 3,370.6 4.1 5.4 6.3 -0.9
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barrie 716.5 697.8 2.7 4.0 4.8 -0.8
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 759.2 739.5 2.7 4.8 5.5 -0.7
London 323.6 324.1 -0.2 5.7 5.6 0.1
Windsor--Sarnia 305.3 298.2 2.4 5.0 5.6 -0.6
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 160.6 154.0 4.3 4.1 3.8 0.3
Northeast 246.7 245.7 0.4 5.3 6.6 -1.3
Northwest 102.6 99.5 3.1 5.3 6.2 -0.9

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122

Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q4-2016 to Q4-2017
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q4-2016 to Q4-2017. The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0122

Show data table
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region
Stratford--Bruce Peninsula 4.3%
Toronto 4.1%
Northwest 3.1%
Kitchener--Waterloo--Barriet 2.7%
Hamilton--Niagara Peninsula 2.7%
Windsor--Sarnia 2.4%
Northeast 0.4%
Ottawa 0.0%
London -0.2%
Muskoka--Kawarthas -4.0%
Kingston-Pembroke -7.2%

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Badkar, M. (2018, January 05). US economy create 148,000 jobs in Dec, wages pick up. Financial Times. Retrieved from: https://www.ft.com/content/b927151c-5e04-3297-bf28-5bc264dbb704

Return to Footnote 1

Footnote 2

Garrick, R. (2017, October 24). Whitesand to generate its own electricity. Wawatay Communications Society. Retrieved from: http://www.wawataynews.ca/commentary/whitesand-generate-its-own-electricity

Return to Footnote 2

Footnote 3

CBC News. (2017, November 14). Federal government invests $2.6M for Atikameksheng Anishnawbek training program. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/sudbury/indigenous-training-sudbury-funding-1.4401451

Return to Footnote 3

Footnote 4

Northern Ontario Business Staff. (2017, December 01). Sudbury contractor starts groundbreaking work on Watay power project. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from: https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/industry-news/design-build/sudbury-contractor-starts-groundbreaking-work-on-watay-power-project-780231

Return to Footnote 4

Footnote 5

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2017, December 07). Statistics Canada. Table 027-0001: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, under construction and completions in centres 10,000 and over, Canada, provinces, selected census metropolitan areas, monthly (units)

Return to Footnote 5

Footnote 6

Wong, N. and Hertzberg, E. (2018, January 04). Toronto Home Prices Fall for Seventh Month as Lending Tightens. Bloomberg. Retrieved from: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-01-04/toronto-home-prices-fall-for-seventh-month-as-lending-tightens

Return to Footnote 6

Footnote 7

The Canadian Press. (2017, December 08). Canadian housing starts' six-month upward trend hits decade high, CMHC reports. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/real_estate/2017/12/08/canadian-housing-starts-six-month-upward-trend-hits-decade-high-cmhc-reports.html

Return to Footnote 7

Footnote 8

Kenter, P. (2017, November 28). Site of Toronto's Canvas Condominium on Danforth cleared by Lions Demolition. Daily Commercial News. Retrieved from: https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/projects/2017/11/site-torontos-canvas-condominium-danforth-cleared-lions-demolition

Return to Footnote 8

Footnote 9

Dryden, B. (2017, October 20). Stittsville touted as retirement mecca. Ottawa Community News. Retrieved from: https://www.ottawacommunitynews.com/news-story/7665039-stittsville-touted-as-retirement-mecca/

Return to Footnote 9

Footnote 10

Landau, J. (2017, December 01). Excavation Begins for Daniels' Wesley Tower in Mississauga. Urban Toronto. Retrieved from: http://urbantoronto.ca/news/2017/12/excavation-begins-daniels-wesley-tower-mississauga

Return to Footnote 10

Footnote 11

Statistics Canada. Table 026-0016 - Investment in non-residential building construction, by type of building, province and census metropolitan area (CMA), quarterly (dollars)

Return to Footnote 11

Footnote 12

Carruthers, D. (2017, October 17). OPP communications centre will house 140 staffers who handle crisis calls. The London Free Press. Retrieved from: http://www.stthomastimesjournal.com/2017/10/16/communications-centre-will-house-140-staffers-who-handle-crisis-calls

Return to Footnote 12

Footnote 13

Werner. K. (2017, October 11). Metrolinx to begin Confederation GO train station construction later this year. Stoney Creek News. Retrieved from: https://www.hamiltonnews.com/news-story/7607992-metrolinx-to-begin-confederation-go-train-station-construction-later-this-year/

Return to Footnote 13

Footnote 14

Ministry of Transportation, Government of Ontario. (2017, November 20). Cooksville GO Station Redevelopment Now Underway in Mississauga. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2017/11/cooksville-go-station-redevelopment-now-underway-in-mississauga.html

Return to Footnote 14

Footnote 15

Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Government of Ontario. (2017, October 06). Expanding Broadband Infrastructure in Remote Northern Ontario. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mndmf/en/2017/10/expanding-broadband-infrastructure-in-remote-northern-ontario.html

Return to Footnote 15

Footnote 16

Northern Ontario Business Staff. (2017, December 13). Contractor selected for East-West Tie. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from: https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/industry-news/design-build/contractor-selected-for-east-west-tie-789523

Return to Footnote 16

Footnote 17

Statistics Canada. Table 304-0014 Manufacturers' sales, inventories, orders and inventory to sales ratios, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Canada, monthly (dollars x 1,000)

Return to Footnote 17

Footnote 18

CBC News. (2017, December 08). Nova Chemicals announces $2B investment in Sarnia-Lambton. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/nova-chemicals-announces-2b-investment-in-sarnia-lambton-1.4440113

Return to Footnote 18

Footnote 19

Ministry of Economic Development and Growth, Government of Ontario. (2017, October 02). Ontario Promoting Aerospace Innovation in Mississauga. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medg/en/2017/10/ontario-promoting-aerospace-innovation-in-mississauga.html

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Footnote 20

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Government of Ontario. (2017, November 27). Ontario Supporting Baby Formula Facility in Kingston. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2017/11/ontario-supporting-baby-formula-facility-in-kingston.html

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Footnote 21

Mendler, A. (2017, September 29). Armoured car manufacturer bringing 100 new jobs to Midland. Simcoe.com. Retrieved from: https://www.simcoe.com/news-story/7583261-armoured-car-manufacturer-bringing-100-new-jobs-to-midland/

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Footnote 22

Vivian, R. (2017, October 25). With another facility, Cambridge's Eclipse Automation adds 120 jobs. CambridgeTimes.ca. Retrieved from: https://www.cambridgetimes.ca/news-story/7682542-with-another-facility-cambridge-s-eclipse-automation-adds-120-jobs/

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Footnote 23

CTV London. (2017, October 04). Firestone plant in Woodstock to close; 170 jobs lost. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://london.ctvnews.ca/firestone-plant-in-woodstock-to-close-170-jobs-lost-1.3618481

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Footnote 24

Keenan, G. (2017, November 05). Reynolds to close Toronto Alcan foil plant by the end of next year. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/reynolds-to-close-toronto-alcan-foil-plant-by-the-end-of-the-year/article36838665/

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Footnote 25

Crosby, D. (2017, October 05). St. Teresa seeks more childcare, more hires for BWDSB. thepost.on.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.thepost.on.ca/2017/10/25/st-teresa-seeks-more-childcare-more-hires-for-bwdsb

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Footnote 26

Leitner, R. (2017, October 19). Hamilton enrolment jump adds 21 teachers. HamiltonNews.com. Retrieved from: https://www.hamiltonnews.com/news-story/7656772-hamilton-enrolment-jump-adds-21-teachers/

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Footnote 27

Acadia Broadcasting. (2017, November 07). Public School Board Holding Recruitment Fair In Sioux Lookout. Acadia Broadcasting Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.ckdr.net/news/1872899757/public-school-board-holding-recruitment-fair-sioux-lookout

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Footnote 28

Ministry of Transportation, Government of Ontario. (2017, December 13). Ontario Opening New DriveTest Centres And Extending Hours of Service. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2017/12/ontario-opening-new-drivetest-centres-and-extending-hours-of-service.html

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Footnote 29

Retail Insider. (2017, July 27). Copper Branch Launches National Expansion. Retail Insider. Retrieved from: https://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2017/7/28/copper-branch-national-expansion-20-locations-canada?rq=copper

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Footnote 30

The Canadian Press. (2017, October 19). The Cheesecake Factory to open Toronto location at Yorkdale mall Nov. 21. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/business/2017/10/19/the-cheesecake-factory-to-open-toronto-location-at-yorkdale-mall-nov-21.html

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Footnote 31

Pritchard, B. (2017, October 19). Montana's set to open Nov. 27 in Alliston. Simcoe.com. Retrieved from: https://www.simcoe.com/news-story/7660765-montana-s-set-to-open-nov-27-in-alliston/

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Footnote 32

Boyle, T. (2017, October 23). Hospitals getting more beds, more funding. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/10/23/hospitals-getting-more-beds-more-funding.html

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Footnote 33

Ministry of Education, Government of Ontario. (2017, October 24). Ontario Expanding Early Years Programming for Children and Families. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/edu/en/2017/10/ontario-expanding-early-years-programming-for-children-and-families.html

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Footnote 34

Bradshaw, J. (2017, October 11). Thomson Reuters pledges $100-million to growing Toronto technology hub. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/thomson-reuters-pledges-100-million-to-growing-toronto-technology-hub/article36535391/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&

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Footnote 35

Bozikovic, A. (2017, October 17). Google's Sidewalk Labs signs deal for 'smart city' makeover of Toronto's waterfront. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/google-sidewalk-toronto-waterfront/article36612387/

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Footnote 36

Younglai, R. (2017, December 12). Tech firms drive office-space crunch in downtown Toronto. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/tech-firms-drive-office-space-crunch-in-downtown-toronto/article37307814/

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Footnote 37

Marr, G. (2017, October 03). Don't look now Toronto, but Hamilton just topped $1 billion in new construction in record time. Financial Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/real-estate/dont-look-now-toronto-but-hamilton-just-topped-1-billion-in-new-construction-in-record-time

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Footnote 38

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2017, December). Housing Now Tables - Hamilton CMA and Brantford CMA. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved from: https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/catalog/productDetail.cfm?lang=en&cat=100&itm=3&fr=1515165287966

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Footnote 39

Statistics Canada. Table 026-0006 - Building permits, by type of structure and area, seasonally adjusted, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database). (accessed: 2018, January 05)

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Footnote 40

Cheevers, M. (2017, November 23). Breaking ground on Church Street affordable housing build in downtown St. Catharines. Niagara This Week. Retrieved from: https://www.niagarathisweek.com/news-story/7960789-breaking-ground-on-church-street-affordable-housing-build-in-downtown-st-catharines/

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Footnote 41

Gamble, S. (2017, December 17). Brant County booming. Brantford Expositor. Retrieved from: http://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/2017/12/17/brant-county-booming

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Footnote 42

Canadian Plastics. (2017, October 30). Polymer maker HP Polymer investing $1.7 million in plant expansion. Canadian Plastics. Retrieved from: https://www.canplastics.com/canplastics/polymer-maker-hp-polymers-investing-1-7-million-plant-expansion/1003446954/

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Footnote 43

Canadian Manufacturing.com Staff. (2017, October 17). Mold maker Weber Manufacturing investing $7.9M to expand Midland, Ont. plant. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from: https://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/manufacturing/mold-maker-weber-manufacturing-investing-7-9m-expand-midland-ont-plant-203016/

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Footnote 44

Finnel, L. (2017, December 06). MiTek Canada planning new facility in Bradford, brining new jobs. Bradford West Gwillimbury Topic. Retrieved from: https://www.simcoe.com/news-story/7982224-mitek-canada-planning-new-facility-in-bradford-bringing-new-jobs/

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Footnote 45

CBC News. (2017, November 02). New PCS distribution centre offers molding supply company space to expand. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/new-pcs-distribution-centre-offers-molding-supply-company-space-to-expand-1.4383835

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Footnote 46

McFadden, S. (2017, December 19). IAT Global announces $6 million investment in Bloomfield Business Park. Municipality of Chatham-Kent. Retrieved from: https://www.chatham-kent.ca/EconomicDevelopment/newsreleases/Pages/IAT-Global-announces-$6-million-investment-in-Bloomfield-Business-Park-.aspx

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Footnote 47

Mackinnon, J. (2017, October 24). SNC-Lavalin Opens Office In Port Elgin. BlackburnNews.com. Retrieved from: http://blackburnnews.com/midwestern-ontario/2017/10/24/snc-lavalin-sets-office-port-elgin/

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Footnote 48

Mackinnon, J. (2017, December 01). Another Bruce Power Partner Opens Facility In Bruce County. BlackburnNews.com. Retrieved from: http://blackburnnews.com/midwestern-ontario/2017/12/01/another-bruce-power-partner-opens-facility-bruce-county/

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Footnote 49

Walters, J. (2017, November 03). Nakina Lumber Inc. taking first steps to re-opening. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/nakina-lumber-inc-reopening-1.4384733

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Footnote 50

McKay, J. (2017, October 17). Lac Seul First Nation in northwestern Ontario looking to expand local sawmill. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/lac-seul-sawmill-expand-1.4357102

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Footnote 51

Ross, I. (2017, December 28). Green fields ahead for Kapuskasing cannabis grower. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from: https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/regional-news/northeastern-ontario/green-fields-ahead-for-kapuskasing-cannabis-grower-800209

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Footnote 52

Campbell, M. (2017, October 11). Sears closures could cost Belleville more than 650 jobs. Global News. Retrieved from: https://globalnews.ca/news/3797802/sears-closures-could-cost-belleville-more-than-650-jobs/

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Footnote 53

Soucy, P. (2017, November 27). 2 Kingston-area papers to close as part of Postmedia/Torstar swap. Global News. Retrieved from: https://globalnews.ca/news/3883859/2-kingston-area-papers-to-close-as-part-of-postmedia-torstar-swap/

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Footnote 54

Beattie, S. (2017, October 13). Marijuana company to breathe new life into Cobourg's former Kraft plant. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/10/12/marijuana-company-to-breathe-new-life-into-cobourgs-former-kraft-plant.html

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