Mining and Quarrying: Region of Western Canada and the Territories: 2017-2019

Mining and Quarrying: Region of Western Canada and the Territories: 2016-2019

Sectoral Profiles provide an overview of recent labour market developments and outlooks for key industries, for various regions of the country.

Executive Summary

Employment: In 2016, the mining industry in the Western provinces directly employed 38,000 people or 48% of Canada's mining workforce.Footnote 1 Indigenous people comprise 6-12% of the mining workforce making it the single largest private sector employer of indigenous workers.Footnote 2,Footnote 3 In the Western-Territories (W-T) region, British Columbia (BC) and Saskatchewan have the largest number of people working in the mining sector. BC accounts for 21% (16,600) of mining jobs in Canada and 44% of jobs within Western Canada, while Saskatchewan accounts for 16% (12,300) of mining workers in Canada and 32% of workers among the western provinces.Footnote 4

Export/Trade: W-T region produces 100% of Canada's molybdenum, potash and uranium, and over 50% of Canada's copper, diamonds, silica, and sand and gravel.Footnote 5 Canada is the world's leading producer of potash and the world's second largest producer of uranium; both mined in Saskatchewan.Footnote 6,Footnote 7 Roughly $2.48B or 53% Saskatchewan's mining exports are destined for the US. BC contributes 20% towards Canada's mining trade, exporting copper, coal and aluminum to Japan ($1.95B), China ($1.5B) and South Korea ($1.4B).

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): In 2016, W-T's mining industry contributed $9.3B/year or .55% to national gross domestic product (GDP).Footnote 8 All told, W-T's 2016 capital expenditures on mining development were estimated at $892M in W-T region or 55% of the total mining industry expenditures in Canada.Footnote 9

5 largest employers: Teck Resources, PotashCorp, Goldcorp, Agrium, and Cameco. Teck Resources produces 85% of Canada's coal output.Footnote 10 PotashCorp and Agrium are set to merge to become Nutrien.

Outlook: In 2016, declining world commodity prices led to a decrease in exploration, mining output, and new projects. Over the past 18 months commodity prices have been volatile as a result of global economic uncertainty with Brexit (June 2016), the US election (November 2016) and interest rates.Footnote 11 Prices recovered to some degree in 2017, but are expected to face head winds in 2018 with tighter environmental constraints and slower global demand.Footnote 12

Key Drivers

Supply: Western Canada and the Territories (W-T) account for the majority of Canada's mined coal, copper, diamonds, gemstones, molybdenum, potash, sand and gravel, silica, sulphur, and uranium production.Footnote 13 On the supply side there is generally a lag between production and demand which may result in either an over-supply during low points in the cycle or an under-supply during super-cycles.

Demand: Global growth from industrialization, urbanization and population is the key driver for mining sector since mining resources (minerals and metals) are inputs for many production processes. Global growth performance puts upward pressure on commodity prices. Commodity prices a relatively good indicator of the mining sector's performance and employment prospects.

Market access: Western Canada has a location advantage when it comes to demand from Asian markets. China has long been the world's biggest consumer of iron ore, coal and copper and is a major trade partner for the W-T region's mining industry. China's 2015 economic slow-down resulted in weakened demand for W-T's mined resources and only recently has the country begun a slow recovery.

Competition: Mines in W-T compete with China, Mexico, South Africa, Australia and the US to provide low cost production of minerals and metals.

Geo-politics: Mining companies rely heavily on foreign export and demand and are sensitive to the geopolitical landscape. Most commodity markets crave stability and W-T is considered a safe mining jurisdiction for investment.

Background

Beginning with the economic debt crises in Europe (2009-2014), Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster (2011) and a slowdown in China's economic growth (2014) there was a drop in demand and a world-wide oversupply for many of Canada's raw materials, particularly for potash, uranium, copper and coal. This resulted in mining production slow-downs and job loss between 2011 and 2016. As a result of the geographical location of specific mineral and metal mining clusters the impact on employment is uneven across the W-T region.

In Manitoba, the mining industry is primarily concentrated in the production of zinc and nickel. Employers are supported through a number of provincial government programs including the Mineral Exploration Assistance Program, financial assistance for mineral exploration in the province.Footnote 14

Saskatchewan has the largest uranium deposits in the world and is also the top global potash producer.Footnote 15,Footnote 16 In 2016 potash, after gold and copper, was Canada's third leading mined product by value at $3.9B.Footnote 17 In 2016, Saskatchewan accounted for 16.4% ($229.9M) of all Canadian exploration expenditures.Footnote 18 A review of Saskatchewan's royalty tax structure is underway; however, with potash prices still low, the review has slowed and no time line has been set for completion.Footnote 19

The primary mining commodity in Alberta is coal with 10 major mines in operation.Footnote 20 Over three quarters of Alberta's coal production is thermal coal; the remaining mines produce metallurgical (coking) coal.Footnote 21 Under the Alberta government's Climate Leadership Plan coal fired plants in the province will be phased out by 2030.Footnote 22 In addition to coal, Alberta has hundreds of small and medium-sized sand and gravel producers.

In BC, mining is centered on copper and coking coal, used for steel-making. Together these two commodities account for about 40% of BC's mining revenue.Footnote 23 The province also has robust activity in gold, silver, copper and zinc mining. In 2016, BC mining companies spent 16.3% ($228.7M) of all Canadian mining expenditures on mineral exploration.Footnote 24 In 2016 the Government of BC initiated a five-year program allowing mining employers to defer a portion of electricity payment until commodity prices recover.Footnote 25

Diamond extraction in the Northwest Territories (NWT) has made Canada a top diamond producer in the world.Footnote 26 Currently there are five active mines in NWT and Nunavut, representing the largest private sector contribution to their respective territorial economies.Footnote 27 These mines produce diamonds, gold and iron. Minto copper mine is the only active producing mine in the Yukon.Footnote 28 Impact and Benefit Agreements (IBA) enable employers work with local communities in the North to develop mutually beneficial outcomes.

Mining and Quarrying Provincial % of GDP and % of Employment in 2006 and 2016
The data table for this figure is located below

Sources: 1. Statistics Canada CANSIM Table 379-0030 - Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), provinces and territories, annual (dollars). 2. Statistics Canada Labour force estimates by detailed industry, age, sex, class of worker.

Show data table

 

% of Total GDP

% of Total Employment

Manitoba

 

 

2016

2.8%

0.6%

2006

4.1%

0.5%

Saskatchewan

 

 

2016

4.8%

2.2%

2006

5.9%

1.3%

Alberta

 

 

2016

0.2%

0.2%

2006

0.3%

0.2%

British Columbia

 

 

2016

1.7%

0.7%

2006

2.0%

0.4%

Territories

 

 

2016

18.4%

4.1%

2006

12.0%

5.3%


Employment

In 2016, mining employment in the Western provinces reached 38,000.Footnote 29

  • In Manitoba, mining employment grew by 15.6% year-over-year
  • In Saskatchewan, mining employment grew by 2.5% year-over-year
  • In Alberta, mining employment contracted by 12.9% year-over-year
  • In BC, mining employment grew by 13.7% year-over-year

Occupations in the mining industry are primarily high-skilled requiring college education and/or apprenticeship training. Underground production and development miners (NOC 8231) make up the largest portion of high- skilled workers. Occupations that produce diamond and industrial minerals are generally among the highest paid.

Employment Outlook

Among the Western provinces, BC is expected to experience the most rapid growth in mining and quarrying between 2017-2019, with an estimated growth in employment of 1,300 workers. Projections for Saskatchewan also indicate an addition of 600 workers to the sector over the same period. And Nunavut may see a modest increase in workforce. However, mining workers in Manitoba, Alberta, Yukon and the Northwest Territories will likely see job loss from 2017-2019.

Regionally, Vancouver Island & Coast (+4.6%) is expected to experience the strongest employment growth between 2017 and 2019. Northern Manitoba and Northern Alberta and Banff will experience the declines of -1.8% and -1.0%, respectively.

The outlook for W-T's mining industry will depend on commodity prices. Gold advanced in 2017 with escalating tensions between the US and North Korea. However expected US interest rate hikes may lead to a modest decline.Footnote 30 Iron ore and metallurgic coal prices are expected to remain strong in 2018.Footnote 31 Base metals, such as aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc, are expected to rise in 2018 based on supply tightness in China, Australia and the US. Thermal coal prices are expected remain up from 2016-2018 due to China's reduction of domestic coal production and its consumption of half the world's coal output. Potash, on the other hand, continues to faces weak global demand as fertilizer markets are well supplied and crop prices remain relatively low. Uranium markets also face headwinds following Fukushima (2011).Footnote 32 At the current low price most uranium production operations are not sustainable.Footnote 33 Even so, overall mineral exploration investment analyst sentiment is positive and is much more optimistic towards Chinese demand.Footnote 34

Projected employment change for the mining and quarrying sector during the 2017-2019 forecast period

Economic Region

Projected Change in Employment

Projected Annual Growth

Manitoba

-200

-1.4%

Southern Manitoba

 

0.0%

Winnipeg

 

-0.8%

Northern Manitoba

 

-1.8%

Saskatchewan

600

1.5%

Regina & Southern Saskatchewan

 

1.5%

Saskatoon & Northern Saskatchewan

 

1.4%

Alberta

-100

-0.8%

Calgary & Southern Alberta

 

-0.6%

Edmonton, Red Deer, Camrose, & Drumheller

 

-0.5%

Northern Alberta and Banff

 

-1.0%

British Columbia

1,300

2.6%

Vancouver Island & Coast

 

4.6%

Lower Mainland - Southwest

 

2.1%

Okanagan - Kootenay

 

2.8%

Northern BC

 

1.8%

Yukon

-50

-5.3%

Northwest Territories

-30

-0.7%

Nunavut

70

5.4%

Source: Service Canada Regional Occupational Outlooks in Canada, 2017-2019
Note: Due to data limitations, the territorial forecast represents employment for the entire Mining, Oil & Gas sector. (According to the 2011 NHS, the share of employment in Mining and Quarrying within the larger sector represented about 38% in the Yukon, 80% in NWT, and 78% in Nunavut.)

Regional Overview

Northern Manitoba: In 2017, Hudbay Minerals announced additional hiring for its Lalor gold mine (Snow Lake) as it ramps up production.Footnote 35 At the same time, Hudbay plans to reduce its Flin Flon zinc mine workforce by at least 500 positions, including 200 layoffs, by 2019. In October 2017, Vale began shutting down nickel smelting and refining activities in Thompson amid falling nickel prices.Footnote 36 The company expects to lay-off 700 workers by the end of 2018.Footnote 37 However, three exploration companies are reviewing Snow Lake for possible lithium, gold, zinc mining.Footnote 38,Footnote 39,Footnote 40 And Minnova Corporation will be re-opening a gold mine near Flin Flon.Footnote 41

Saskatoon and Northern Saskatchewan: In 2017 Cameco announced a temporary shut-down of mining operations at McArthur River and Key Lake laying-off 845 employees citing persistently weak and oversupplied uranium market.Footnote 42 However, Mosaic re-started operations at Colonsay potash mine in early 2017 calling back 330 unionized workers who had been laid off in 2016 in anticipation of increased global demand.Footnote 43

Regina and Southern Saskatchewan: The K+S Bethune potash mine opened in 2017 which is expected to create 400 permanent jobs.Footnote 44 However, PotashCorp halted production temporarily at its Allan and Lanigan mines, in spite of record potash sales and robust demand forecast for 2018.Footnote 45 Southern Saskatchewan holds nearly half of the world's potash reserves and produces one-third of the world's potash.Footnote 46,Footnote 47

Northern Alberta and Banff: In 2017, Altitude Resources Inc. began an exploration program for coking coal near Grande Cache.Footnote 48 Grande Cache is still recovering from the loss of jobs following a coal mine shut-down in 2015.

Northern British Columbia (BC): Northern BC is dominated by coking/metallurgic (met) coal and metal (primarily copper and gold) mines. Imperial Metal's new Red Chris copper/gold mine is in full production.Footnote 49 In 2017, Brule coal mine (Chetwynd) returned production putting 170 coal miners back to work after idling for two years under new Conuma Coal Resources ownership.Footnote 50,Footnote 51,Footnote 52 Conuma also hired back 220 miners for the Wolverine coal mine (Tumbler Ridge).Footnote 53 The opening of Conuma's third mine in Willow Creek (Chetwynd), purchased from Walter Energy, was pushed to 2018 due to market volatility.Footnote 54 Meanwhile, Teck's Quintette coal mine (Tumbler Ridge) has been on hold since 2014, awaiting favourable market conditions.Footnote 55 Taseko's Gibraltar copper-molybdenum mine (Williams Lake), the second-largest open-pit copper mine in Canada, idled for 4 days in July 2017 as a result of B.C.'s wildfires.Footnote 56 The drop in coal production in Northern BC between 2013-2016 also impacted Ridley Terminals (Prince Rupert) where coal is shipped for export. However, met coal recovery in 2017 has positively impacted export activity at the terminal.Footnote 57

Okanagan-Kootenay: The Okanagan region is dominated by copper/gold/lead/zinc mining, while the Kootenay region is home to five Teck Resources met coal operations between Elkford, Sparwood and Fernie. Teck's Coal Mountain mine (Sparwood) is slated for closure in late 2017.Footnote 58 In December 2017, the BC government refused an environmental certificate for the proposed Ajax Copper Gold (Kamloops).Footnote 59 Meanwhile, Yellowhead Mining is keeping its Harper Creek copper mine (Vavenby) on hold until markets become more favourable.Footnote 60

Vancouver Island and Coast: Nystar's Myra Falls zinc and copper mine (Campbell River), idling since 2015, re-opened in August 2107 restoring almost 300 mining jobs as a result of recovering commodity.

Lower Mainland-Southwest: The Lower-Mainland region is a global leader for mineral exploration expertise. About 700 exploration companies are headquartered in BC, with the majority located in Vancouver.Footnote 61 In 2017, Avino Silver and Gold Mines announced plans to reopen its Bralorne mine near Lillooet.Footnote 62

Nunavut: There are three active mines in the territory: Meadowbank, Mary River and Doris North. Although Agnico Eagle's Meadowbank (Kivalliq) mine life was expected to end in 2018, a new deposit nearby (Amaruq) will provide workers with possibly another seven years of mining activity.Footnote 63,Footnote 64 In April 2017 Agnico Eagle announced its plans to double its Inuit workforce to 700 people over the next two years.Footnote 65 The Mary River mine (Baffin Island), one of the world's richest and largest iron ore deposits, contains such high-grade ore that it can be shipped directly without processing that produces tailings.Footnote 66 Mary River site shipped a record amount of iron ore in 2017.Footnote 67 TMAC's Doris North gold mine (Hope Bay) began processing ore in May 2017 with revenue and job benefits for the Kitikmeot Inuit Association and Inuit in the region.Footnote 68

Yukon: In April 2017, Capstone Mining announced that the Yukon's only active mine (Minto, near Pelly Crossing), employing 306 workers, will remain in operation until at least 2020 at current copper prices.Footnote 69

Northwest Territories: There are three active diamond mines in NWT: Diavik, Ekati and Gahcho Kué.Footnote 70 The territory felt the effect of declining diamond prices in 2015-16. However, demand for low value diamonds has recently rebounded.Footnote 71 Mining contributes almost 18% of the Territories' gross domestic product (GDP).Footnote 72 While Rio Tinto's Diavik mine (Lac de Gras) is expected to close in 2025, an expansion Dominion Diamond's Ekati mine (Lac de Gras) could keep that mine active until 2042.Footnote 73 Gahcho Kué diamond mine (Kennady Lake), a fly-in/fly-out site began production in March 2017 and is expected to be in production for 12 years.Footnote 74

Distribution of employment in the mining and quarrying sector across Western Canada (%) The data table for this figure is located below

Source: Service Canada Regional Occupational Outlooks in Canada, 2017-2019
Note: Data for the Territories includes employment for the entire Mining, Oil & Gas sector. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the share of employment in Mining and Quarrying within the larger sector represented about 38% in the Yukon, 80% in NWT, and 78% in Nunavut.

Show data table

Economic Region

Percent (%)

Southern Manitoba

1.4

Winnipeg

0.7

Northern Manitoba

7.1

Regina & Southern Saskatchewan

12.2

Saskatoon & Northern Saskatchewan

18.2

Calgary & Southern Alberta

2.0

Edmonton, Red Deer, Camrose and Drumheller

4.7

Northern Alberta & Banff

6.2

Vancouver Island and Coast

1.6

Lower Mainland - Southwest

5.7

Okanagan - Kootenay

27.6

Northern BC

7.1

Yukon

0.5

Northwest Territories

4.0

Nunavut

1.0

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Service Canada, Region of Western Canada and the Territories
For further information, please contact the LMI team

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey. Annual Average Industry Employment for Mining (except Oil and Gas) & Mix Mining [3 digit NAIC by Province Custom Table for Service Canada] (accessed December 15, 2017)

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 18, 2017)

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Mining Industry Human Resources Council. (accessed December 15, 2017)

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey. Annual Average Industry Employment for Mining (except Oil and Gas) & Mix Mining [3 digit NAIC by Province Custom Table for Service Canada] (accessed December 15, 2017)

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Natural Resources Canada. 2016. Annual Statistics of Mineral Production. Preliminary estimate of the mineral production of Canada, by province, 2016. (accessed December 18, 2017)

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Investing News. September 14, 2017. Top 10 Potash-producing Countries. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 7

World Nuclear Association. July 2017. World Uranium Mining Production. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 8

Statistics Canada. Cansim Table 379-0030 [Note: Support activities for mining and oil and gas extraction (NAICS 213) is not included in this sector profile] (accessed December 15, 2017)

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Natural Resources Canada. 2015. Exploration Plus Deposit Appraisal Expenditures by Province and Territory. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 10

Canadian Mining Journal. 2015. Tough slugging for BC's coal miners. (accessed August 2, 2016)

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Footnote 11

PwC. 2017. Gold and copper price survey. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 12

The World Bank. October 26, 2017. October Commodity Markets Outlook. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 13

Natural Resources Canada. 2016. Annual Statistics of Mineral Production. Preliminary estimate of the mineral production of Canada, by province, 2016. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 14

Government of Manitoba. 2017. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 15

Investing News. September 14, 2017. Top 10 Potash-producing Countries. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 16

World Nuclear Association. July 2017. World Uranium Mining Production. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 17

Natural Resources Canada. 2016. Annual Statistics of Mineral Production. Preliminary estimate of the mineral production of Canada, by province, 2016. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 18

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 19

Alex Macpherson. July 15, 2016. Sask. Government 'slowing' potash royalty review in response to weak prices. The Saskatoon StarPhoenix. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 20

Coal Association of Canada. 2017. Careers in Coal - Alberta Mine Map. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 21

Government of Alberta. 2017. What is coal? Alberta - Energy - Coal. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 22

Government of Alberta. 2017. Phasing out coal pollution. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 23

Hayley Woodin. January 5, 2017. Outlook 2017: B.C. miners meeting 2016 with 'cautious optimism'. Business Vancouver. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 24

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 25

Government of British Columbia. February 5, 2016. Government takes action to keep mine workers on the job. BC Gov News. (accessed December 18, 2016)

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Footnote 26

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 27

NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines. 2017. Mines Actively Producing in the NWT and Nunavut. (accessed December 18, 2017)

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Footnote 28

Yukon Government. 2016. Yukon Mining and Exploration Projects 2016. (accessed December 18, 2016)

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Footnote 29

Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey. Annual Average Industry Employment for Mining (except Oil and Gas) & Mix Mining [3 digit NAIC by Province, Custom Table for Service Canada] (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 30

The World Bank. October 26, 2017. October Commodity Markets Outlook. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 31

Andrew Topf. Macquarie says iron ore, coal prices to remain strong into 2018. Mining.com. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 32

The World Bank. October 26, 2017. October Commodity Markets Outlook. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 33

Uranium Participation Corporation. 2017. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 34

Andrew Topf. Macquarie says iron ore, coal prices to remain strong into 2018. Mining.com. (accessed December 15, 2017)

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Footnote 35

Flin Flon Reminder. April 4, 2017. Hudbay will be hiring in Snow Lake. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 36

CBC News. May 16, 2017. Thompson mine to close in October, will put at least 150 out of work. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 37

Kyle Darbyson. November 7, 2017. Vale reps field questions and concerns at open house. Thompson Citizen. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 38

Jonathan Naylor. September 18, 2017. "Positive" results for lithium exploration near Snow Lake. Flin Flon Reminder. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 39

Cynthia Bigrigg. October 16, 2017. Rockcliff purchases gold property near Snow Lake. Flin Flon Reminder. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 40

Jonathan Naylor. September 25, 2017. Strong results shown for Zoro lithium project. Flin Flon Reminder. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 41

Flin Flon Reminder. September 6, 2017. Exploration brings positive news for PL mine restart plan. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 42

Alex Macpherson. November 8, 2017. 'There was no indication this was going to happen': Union says workers shocked by temporary shutdowns and layoffs at Cameco uranium operations. Saskatoon StarPhoenix. (accessed December 19, 2017)

Return to footnote 42 referrer

Footnote 43

Saskatoon StarPhoenix. January 4, 2017. The Colonsay potash mine will resume production this month, Mosaic says. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 44

CBC New | Saskatoon. May 2, 2017. K+S officially opens Bethune potash mine. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 45

Alex Macpherson, October 26, 2017. Temporary shutdowns at Allan, Lanigan still on as potash demand improves: PotashCorp. Saskatoon StarPhoenix. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 46

Saskatchewan Mining Association. May 20, 2015. Post Media News. Reported in Saskatoon StarPhoenix. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 47

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 48

Altitude Resources Inc. June 26, 2017. Market Wired. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 49

Hayley Woodin. January 5, 2017. Outlook 2017: B.C. miners meeting 2017 with 'cautious optimism'. Business Vancouver (accessed December 20, 2017)

Return to footnote 49 referrer

Footnote 50

Hayley Woodin. January 5, 2017. Outlook 2017: B.C. miners meeting 2017 with 'cautious optimism'. Business Vancouver (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 51

Jonny Wakefield. October 5, 2016. Brule coal mine back in business at record speed. Dawson Creek Mirror. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 52

Business in Vancouver. December 29, 2016. B.C. coal mine to restart, hiring back 200+ workers. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 53

Business in Vancouver. December 29, 2016. B.C. coal mine to restart, hiring back 200+ workers. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 54

Trent Ernst. July 20, 2017. Dawson Creek Mirror. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 55

Teck Resources. Operations - Canada - Quintette. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 56

News Wire. July 19, 2017. Taseko Announces Restart of Gibraltar Mine Employees Able to Return to Work. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 57

Nelson Bennett. December 12, 2017. Port is major economic driver in Prince Rupert: study. Business Vancouver. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 58

Teck Resources. Operations - Canada - Coal Mountain. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 59

Canadian Mining Journal. December 18, 2017. Copper-Gold: KGHM's Ajax mine fails to gain environmental nod. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 60

News Wire. January 12, 2017. Yellowhead Mining Inc. - TSX Listing Review. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 61

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 62

Wendy Fraser. March 8, 2017. Bralorne Gold Mine to re-open later this year. Bridge River Lillooet News. (accessed December 19, 2017)

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Footnote 63

Agnico Eagle. 2017. Operations & Development Projects - Meadowbank. accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 64

NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines. 2013-2016 (accessed September 9, 2016)

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Footnote 65

Jane George. April 4, 2017. Presence of mine: Nunavut leaders push mining potential at gathering. Nunatsiaq Online. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 66

Brendan Marshall. 2016. Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry 2016. The Mining Association of Canada. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 67

CBC News | North. October 19, 2017. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 68

Nunatsiaq. May 29 2017. TMAC's western Nuanvut gold mine moves into commercial production. Nunatsiq Online. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 69

CBC News | North. April 26, 2017. Yukon's Minto mine postpones layoffs until June. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 70

Government of Northwest Territories. Industry, Tourism and Investment - Key Projects. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 71

Virginia Heffernan. November 23, 217. Diamonds: Dominion Diamond's new chapter. Canadian Mining Journal. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 72

Statistics Canada. GDP at basic prices by NAICS, provinces and territories (Cansim 379-0030) (accessed December 15, 2017) [Note: Support activities for mining and oil and gas extraction (NAICS 213) is not included in this sector profile]

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Footnote 73

Melinda Trochu. September 12, 2017. Underground expansion could extend Ekati mine life by 7 years, says new report. CBC News | North. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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Footnote 74

De Beers. 2017 Gacho Kué. (accessed December 20, 2017)

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