Ontario Labour Market Bulletin : August 2019

This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula, Kingston-Pembroke, Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie, London, Muskoka-Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford-Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor-Sarnia.

Overview

Labour Force Trends – Employment in Ontario increased considerably, but only in part-time work

  • Employment in Ontario increased by 57,800 in August 2019, following two months of declines
  • Gains were observed solely in part-time work (+61,000) balancing out losses in full-time work (-3,200)
  • The unemployment rate decreased slightly to 5.6%

Employment in Ontario increased considerably by 57,800 (+0.8%) from July to August 2019. Growth was realized entirely in part-time employment (+61,000), balancing the losses in full-time work (-3,200). The provincial labour market showed signs of health with the unemployment rate inching down to 5.6%, the employment rate showing a slight increase of 0.4 percentage points from 61.1% to 61.5%, and the participation rate increasing to 65.2% from 64.8%

Over the past year, the Ontario labour market continued to grow. Employment advanced by 249,700 between August 2018 and August 2019 with gains realized in both full-time work (+158,500) and part-time work (+91,200). The unemployment rate fell by 0.1 percentage points while the labour force participation rate increased by 0.9 percentage points to 65.2% year-over-year.

Employment in Canada increased by 81,100 (+0.4%) in August 2019, much of which can be attributed to employment gains in Ontario (+57,800; +0.8%) and Quebec (+19,700; +0.5%). Part-time employment increased (+57,200; +1.6) for the first time this summer with Ontario and Quebec registering most of these gains. Full-time employment also increased by 23,800 (+0.2%), with Manitoba and Quebec leading the gains. Both the labour force (+91,300) and the unemployed population (+10,200) increased in August, keeping the national unemployment rate steady at 5.7% for the second month in a row.

The United States total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 130,000 in August, while the unemployment rate remained unchanged at 3.7%. Canada's exports declined for the second month in a row, decreasing by about 0.9% in July. This can be attributed to a fall in exports of energy products, owing to lower crude oil exports, as well as lower exports to the United States and China. Continued uncertainties and disputes around trade relations with the U.S. and China could continue to impact exports and economic activity as Canada heads into the fall. [1]

The Ontario youth (15 to 24 years) unemployment rate inched down from 12.9% to 12.2% in August, sitting above the national youth unemployment rate of 11.5%. Female youth seemed to fare better in the Ontario labour market in August with a decrease in unemployment rate, and increases in both employment and participation rates. Male youth, on the other hand, saw a slight increase in their unemployment rate while their employment and participation rates remained unchanged over the month.

Throughout the summer months, Statistics Canada collects labour market data on youth aged 15 to 24 who attended school full-time in March and who intend to return to school full-time in autumn. [2] Student summer employment increased by 52,100 (10.3%) in Ontario between August 2018 and August 2019. The unemployment rate for returning students rose by 0.5 percentage points to 12.7% over the same period. This was just below the national rate of 12.8%. The participation and employment rates for Ontario summer students rose to 60.3%, and 52.6% respectively, indicating some ease in securing work. However, there may have been some difficulty for the youngest student cohort (15-16 years old) finding positions, as employment (-400) and the employment rate (-1.1 percentage points) decreased over the year. Overall, labour market conditions for the summer job market have improved for all student cohorts as full-time employment grew every month, and both unemployment and the unemployment rate dipped considerably between July and August.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally Adjusted
Monthly Data
August 2019 July 2019 August 2018 Monthly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 12,162.2 12,141.8 11,930.3 20.4 0.2 231.9 1.9
Labour Force ('000) 7,923.8 7,868.5 7,667.5 55.3 0.7 256.3 3.3
Employment ('000) 7,478.1 7,420.3 7,228.4 57.8 0.8 249.7 3.5
Full-Time ('000) 6,077.3 6,080.5 5,918.8 -3.2 -0.1 158.5 2.7
Part-Time ('000) 1,400.8 1,339.8 1,309.6 61.0 4.6 91.2 7.0
Unemployment ('000) 445.7 448.2 439.1 -2.5 -0.6 6.6 1.5
Unemployment Rate (%) 5.6 5.7 5.7 -0.1 - -0.1 -
Participation Rate (%) 65.2 64.8 64.3 0.4 - 0.9 -
Employment Rate (%) 61.5 61.1 60.6 0.4 - 0.9 -

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0287, formerly CANSIM 282-0087

Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below

Seasonally adjusted data
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey Table 14-10-0287

Show data table: Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Ontario Monthly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Unemployment Rate (%) Employment ('000)
Aug-2017 5.5 7,154.1
Sep-2017 5.6 7,438.0
Oct-2017 5.8 7,179.7
Nov-2017 5.5 7,208.3
Dec-2017 5.6 7,208.8
Jan-2018 5.6 7,171.6
Feb-2018 5.5 7,187.1
Mar-2018 5.6 7,194.9
Apr-2018 5.6 7,212.3
May-2018 5.7 7,215.8
Jun-2018 5.9 7,246.8
Jul-2018 5.4 7,302.5
Aug-2018 5.7 7,228.4
Sep-2018 5.8 7,266.4
Oct-2018 5.6 7,267.5
Nov-2018 5.6 7,284.4
Dec-2018 5.4 7,300.5
Jan-2019 5.7 7,341.9
Feb-2019 5.7 7,378.8
Mar-2019 5.9 7,370.0
Apr-2019 6.0 7,417.1
May-2019 5.2 7,438.0
Jun-2019 5.4 7,431.0
Jul-2019 5.7 7,420.3
Aug-2019 5.6 7,478.1
Ontario Monthly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally Adjusted Data August 2019
(%)
July 2019
(%)
August 2018
(%)
Monthly Variation
(% points)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Total 5.6 5.7 5.7 -0.1 -0.1
25 years and over 4.5 4.5 4.8 0.0 -0.3
Men - 25 years and over 4.6 4.6 4.6 0.0 0.0
Women - 25 years and over 4.5 4.5 5.0 0.0 -0.5
15 to 24 years 12.2 12.9 11.5 -0.7 0.7
Men - 15 to 24 years 13.8 13.7 11.6 0.1 2.2
Women - 15 to 24 years 10.5 12.0 11.4 -1.5 -0.9

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0287, formerly CANSIM 282-0087

Employment by Industry

Employment gains observed in goods-producing sector for the first time in four months

Ontario's goods-producing sector observed a net gain of 8,300 (+0.6%) in employment in August, the sector's first increase in four months, after three consecutive monthly losses. There were monthly employment increases in construction (+3,000; +0.6%), manufacturing (+1,400; +0.2%), forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (+3,300; +10.1%) and agriculture (+1,800; +2.4%). The only goods-producing industry where employment fell in August was the utilities industry (-1,200; -2.2%).

Provincial construction employment rose by 0.6% to 542,200 in August, as employment figures in the industry have hovered around that figure for most of 2019. Ontario building permit values increased in June, continuing the trend set in the last few months. The boost came mainly from commercial building permits, which grew by about 32% over the year, [3] as activities in the construction industry remain buoyant with several large-scale developments planned or underway. Housing starts in Ontario grew in both June and July and registered increases year-over-year as well. [4]

Infrastructure developments in transportation and the utilities system contributed to some of the most significant construction projects in the province in August. The Government of Canada announced $6M in funding from the National Trade Corridors Fund towards improvements to the Port of Sarnia, with the projects expected to create 120 jobs during construction. [5] In addition, the federal government also invested $5.5M in transportation infrastructure improvements at the Port of Hamilton, creating 110 jobs during construction. [6]

With respect to the provincial utilities system, Hydro One plans to replace 90 km of lines in the Upper Ottawa Valley, crossing the towns of Laurentian Hills, Deep River, Petawawa, and Laurentian Valley, creating a significant electrical distribution project for the region. [7] As well, the Government of Canada pledged $1.8M to upgrade water, sewer, and electrical infrastructure at the Sault Ste. Marie Airport, with an estimated 100 full-time jobs expected to be created. [8]

In the commercial sector, the most noteworthy development in August came from Marriott International Inc.'s plans to build a luxury hotel, Hotel Vie, in Vaughan. Construction will begin in late 2019 and is expected to be completed in 2021. [9]

Employment in manufacturing expanded slightly in August, growing by 0.2% to 764,000. The Markit Canada Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) fell to 49.1 in August, signifying contraction in factory activity, as new orders dropped for the sixth consecutive month and at the steepest pace since December 2015. [10] Additionally, manufacturing sales remained relatively flat across Ontario, with a 0.2% increase in sales over June, [11] while exports from Ontario to other countries fell by 9.0% in July, with exports to the United States falling by 12.5% over the month. [12]

There were significant developments in the industry, both intakes and outflows, with several investments supporting job creation across manufacturing. These included federal government investments of $49.9M in Stelco to support a $412M project that will create 75 jobs and maintain 2,200 in Hamilton and Lake Erie [13] and a $4.7M investment in Woodland Biofuels' Sarnia operation that is expected to create more than 300 local jobs. [14] In addition, the federal government will purchase 360 new light armoured vehicles from London's General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada, in a deal valued at about $3B. [15] Looking beyond the federal investments, FCA Canada Inc. announced that it will extend the third shift at the Windsor Assembly Plant to the end of 2019, extending the employment tenure of about 1,500 employees. [16]

The forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas sector had the sharpest employment net gains (+10.1%) in August, rising to 35,900, with the sector boosted partially by ever-increasing gold prices throughout the last six months as insurance against global economic jitters. [17] As demand continues to rise for gold on a global scale, the federal government authorized the Goliath Gold Project near Dryden, with up to 450 jobs created during construction and 250 jobs thereafter. [18]

On a year-over-year basis, employment in the goods-producing sector increased by 25,400 (+1.8%), with construction (+22,400; +4.3%) and agriculture (+8,300; +12.2%) showing significant strength. The manufacturing industry remained relatively flat year-over-year (+1,600; +0.2%), while utilities (-5,800; -9.8%) and forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (-1,000; -2.7%) registered losses over the same period

Employment gains in the services-producing sector buoyed by the trade sector

Employment increased in the services-producing sector by 49,500 (+0.8%) in August, with the largest contributions to these net gains coming from the trade sector (+19,000; +1.8%), the health care and social assistance sector (+13,900; +1.5%), and the finance, insurance, real estate and leasing sector (+13,000; +2.2%). In contrast, the business, building and other support services sector (-9,300; -2.9%), the information, culture and recreation sector (-3,100; -1.0%), and the educational services sector (-3000; -0.6%) observed the largest net losses among Ontario's services-producing industries.

The workforce in the Ontario retail and wholesale trade sector increased by 1.8% to 1,102,400 in August, as retail sales in Ontario increased in June, with sales having increased every month throughout 2019. [19] There were a number of significant developments in the Ontario trade sector in August, with the biggest job creation news coming from Lush Cosmetics, a beauty and cosmetics retail brand, which is hiring over 500 full-time seasonal positions at its manufacturing and distribution centres in Toronto. [20] In addition, following the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario's cannabis store lottery results, several new licensed cannabis retail stores are expected to open across the province in the coming months. [21]

While a number of other smaller-scale job creation news contributed to the growth of the sector, there was some layoff news as well, which will impact employment in the sector in following months. This included Zellers, a department store, closing its last two remaining stores in Ottawa and Toronto in the coming months. [22]

As employment in the health care and social assistance sector (13,900; +1.5%) expanded over August, notable positive developments included the Government of Ontario providing funding of up to $5M to add more mental health and addictions services for Indigenous communities. This funding will support the training of more than 700 frontline workers, and provide up to 90 full time jobs. [23] In addition, South East Grey Community Health Centre purchased a property in Markdale, with plans to expand services and create a health hub for Grey County. [24]

The provincial educational services sector (-3,000; -0.6%) observed losses in August, for the second consecutive month, as school boards across the province continue to grapple with funding cuts or lower funding increases compared to previous years. Notably, the Toronto District School Board cut 296 teaching and staff positions in August, including secondary school teachers, reading coaches, social workers and custodians, [25], [26] with 190 of the 296 positions actual layoffs, and 106 positions being eliminated through attrition. [27] Additionally, a number of other school boards across Ontario have given surplus or elimination notices to their teaching staff over the summer, including the Halton, Hamilton and the Near North public boards. [28]

Year-over-year, the services-producing sector posted net employment gains of 224,200 (+3.9%). The increase was led by the health care and social assistance sector (+64,800; +7.6%) and the professional, scientific and technical services sector (+64,100; +10.2%). The largest yearly losses in the services-producing sector in Ontario occurred in the accommodation and food services sector (-16,800; -3.6%).

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally Adjusted August 2019 July 2019 August 2018 Monthly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 7,478.1 7,420.3 7,228.4 57.8 0.8 249.7 3.5
Goods-producing sector 1,471.5 1,463.2 1,446.1 8.3 0.6 25.4 1.8
Agriculture 76.1 74.3 67.8 1.8 2.4 8.3 12.2
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 35.9 32.6 36.9 3.3 10.1 -1.0 -2.7
Utilities 53.3 54.5 59.1 -1.2 -2.2 -5.8 -9.8
Construction 542.2 539.2 519.8 3.0 0.6 22.4 4.3
Manufacturing 764.0 762.6 762.4 1.4 0.2 1.6 0.2
Services-producing sector 6,006.6 5,957.1 5,782.4 49.5 0.8 224.2 3.9
Trade 1102.4 1083.4 1064.8 19.0 1.8 37.6 3.5
Transportation and warehousing 405.5 405.2 382.9 0.3 0.1 22.6 5.9
Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 595.1 582.1 564.3 13.0 2.2 30.8 5.5
Professional, scientific and technical services 694.9 687.1 630.8 7.8 1.1 64.1 10.2
Business, building and other support services 306.9 316.2 320.3 -9.3 -2.9 -13.4 -4.2
Educational services 534.0 537.0 525.1 -3.0 -0.6 8.9 1.7
Health care and social assistance 917.9 904.0 853.1 13.9 1.5 64.8 7.6
Information, culture and recreation 309.3 312.4 316.1 -3.1 -1.0 -6.8 -2.2
Accommodation and food services 453.6 451.8 470.4 1.8 0.4 -16.8 -3.6
Other services 298.0 293.6 295.2 4.4 1.5 2.8 0.9
Public administration 388.9 384.3 359.3 4.6 1.2 29.6 8.2

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0355, formerly CANSIM 282-0088

Regional Analysis

Toronto continues to account for much of the employment growth in the province

Employment grew by 133,700 (+3.8%) in the Toronto economic region between August 2018 and August 2019. Gains were made in both full-time (+106,100) and part-time employment (+27,600). The regional unemployment rate dropped by 0.4 percentage points while the labour force participation rate increased by 0.5 percentage points to 67.7%.

The region saw some announcements over the month that will help to promote employment growth including the City of Brampton announcing that it will be granting up to $7.3M over three years to Algoma University's $34.4M expansion of its Brampton campus which is expected to create 273 direct and indirect local jobs once complete. [29] The region's retail sector continued to flourish with several store openings [30], [31], [32], [33], [34] as well as the announcement that Lush Cosmetics would be hiring 500 full-time seasonal staff at its manufacturing and distribution centres in Toronto. [35] In the manufacturing sector, automotive parts manufacturer Global Plas Inc., received almost $2.5M in federal funding to incorporate advanced robotics and automation into its operations and is expected to add 50 new jobs in the region. [36] Additionally Microbix Biosystems Inc. received $2.75M in federal funding to scale-up production at its antigen facility in Mississauga and create 97 highly skilled jobs. [37] The region's tech sector saw several investment announcements including biometric security products manufacturer Invixium, receiving $4.5M from CIBC Innovation Banking to support its expansion plans; [38] $12M in venture capital raised by software startup Nudge Rewards Inc., to grow their data science team; [39] and e-commerce startup Drop, raising $58M in funding, a portion of which will be used to expand its Toronto and New York teams. [40]

The Ottawa economic region also continued to register employment gains (+47,000; +6.6%) year-over-year, with almost all these gains being observed in full-time employment (+40,500). The regional unemployment rate remained unchanged at 5.2% while the labour force participation rate increased from 66.0% to 69.0% between August 2018 and August 2019. The cannabis industry brought some positive news to the region with the announced construction of a new cannabis production facility in South Dundas which is expected to create 15 full-time jobs, expanding to 60 jobs in the future. [41] Additionally, the region is expected to gain a new licensed cannabis retail location following the results of the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario's (AGCO) lottery results. [42]

Employment rose by 12,500 (+1.6%) in the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula economic region while the regional unemployment rate declined from 5.9% to 5.3% between August 2018 and August 2019. The regional manufacturing industry got a boost from the provincial government's $49.9M investment in Stelco's $412M project that is expected to create 75 jobs and maintain 2,200 jobs in Hamilton and Lake Erie. [43] The tech sector in the region received some positive news with the announcement from Next Generation Manufacturing Canada that it will spend $4.3M on an Advanced Manufacturing Supercluster project, which is expected to create 470 jobs in the region. [44] Several major announcements dotted the region's construction landscape in August. These included a federal government investment of $5.5M in transportation infrastructure improvements at the Port of Hamilton, which is expected to create 110 jobs during construction; [45] and a provincial government investment of $12M towards the construction of Greensville elementary school in Hamilton. [46] Following the announcement of the AGCO's cannabis store lottery results, the region could have several new licensed cannabis stores in the coming months. [47]

The Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie economic region registered year-over-year employment gains of 12,300 (+1.6%) in August, although all these gains were concentrated in part-time employment. The unemployment rate ticked up by 0.6 percentage points while the labour force participation rate remained unchanged during the same period. The region is expected to see some new licensed cannabis retail stores open in the near future following the announcement of the AGCO's cannabis store lottery results. [48] On the construction front, the new $100M Gaslight District project in Cambridge broke ground in August; [49] while September start dates have been set for the $13M Dunlop Street reconstruction project in Barrie; [50] $14M reconstruction of King Street in Midland; [51] and the construction of the Building Hope project in Orillia. [52]

Employment also increased in the Kingston‒Pembroke economic region (+12,600; +6.1%) year-over-year.

Six economic regions saw employment losses in August, with London registering the bulk of these losses

The London economic region posted the largest employment decrease in Ontario, as it fell by 13,700 (-3.9%) from August 2018 to August 2019, with a corresponding increase in the unemployment rate from 6.2% to 7.0%. While employment has trended down recently, there were some positive announcements that could move employment creation forward, including General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada establishing a $3B deal with the Government of Canada for the purchase of 360 new light armoured vehicles [53] and an investment of over $7.8M by the federal and provincial governments to create 130 affordable housing units in Oxford County. [54]

Employment also decreased in the Muskoka‒Kawarthas economic region (-8,600; -4.7%) year-over-year. The region did receive some positive news particularly among manufacturers supporting recycling. This includes Min-Tech Inc., a plastic recycling company in Campbellford, which is investing $20M to expand production and expects to create up to 100 new jobs. [55] Cobourg-based manufacturer, Graphic Packaging International, also expects to create 11 new full time jobs as a result of $50K in federal government funding that will support advanced manufacturing innovation in recyclable and compostable paperboard packaging. [56]

Employment figures fell by 7,900 (-3.0%) in the Northeast economic region over the year, accompanied by an increase in the unemployment rate by 0.7 percentage points over the same period. Several economic projects are taking place in this region, which could boost employment in the coming months. For example, with federal government assistance, the City of Sault Ste. Marie is upgrading water, sewer, and electrical infrastructure at the Sault Ste. Marie Airport. The project is expected to create an estimated 100 full-time jobs. [57] Also, the City of Parry Sound started a $19.7M construction project that will resurface 14.1 kilometres of Highway 400 and is expected to be completed in the fall of 2020. [58]

Employment losses were also reported in the Windsor‒Sarnia, Stratford-Bruce Peninsula and Northwest economic regions.

Ontario Monthly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
3-Month Moving Averages
Seasonally Unadjusted Data
Employment Unemployment Rate
August 2019
('000)
August 2018
('000)
Yearly Variation
(%)
August 2019
(%)
August 2018
(%)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Ontario 7,540.9 7,356.0 2.5 6.0 6.1 -0.1
Economic Regions
Ottawa 761.2 714.2 6.6 5.2 5.2 0.0
Kingston - Pembroke 218.6 206.0 6.1 6.0 6.2 -0.2
Muskoka - Kawarthas 176.2 184.8 -4.7 5.9 6.3 -0.4
Toronto 3,699.0 3,565.3 3.8 6.3 6.7 -0.4
Kitchener - Waterloo - Barrie 760.2 747.9 1.6 5.5 4.9 0.6
Hamilton - Niagara Peninsula 771.1 758.6 1.6 5.3 5.9 -0.6
London 334.6 348.3 -3.9 6.5 5.8 0.7
Windsor - Sarnia 301.8 303.1 -0.4 7.0 6.4 0.6
Stratford - Bruce Peninsula 161.0 161.3 -0.2 4.3 3.2 1.1
Northeast 251.4 259.3 -3.0 6.7 6.0 0.7
Northwest 105.8 107.2 -1.3 5.5 5.0 0.5

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0293, formerly CANSIM 282-0122

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Directorate, Service Canada, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

  1. Shenfeld, A. (2019, September 06). Out of the Fire, Into the Frying Pan. CIBC Economics. Retrieved from https://economics.cibccm.com/economicsweb/cds?ID=8056&TYPE=EC_PDF

  2. Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0286-03 Labour force characteristics by province and type of student during summer months, monthly, unadjusted for seasonality

  3. Statistics Canada. (2019, August). Table 34-10-0066-01 - Building permits, by type of structure and type of work. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3410006601

  4. Statistics Canada. (2019, August). Table 34-10-0158-01 - Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, all areas, Canada and provinces, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, monthly. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3410015801

  5. DCN News Services Staff. (2019, August 13). Corridors Fund supports Port of Sarnia with $6M. Daily Commercial News. Retrieved from https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/infrastructure/2019/08/corridors-fund-supports-port-sarnia-6m

  6. Transport Canada Staff. (2019, August 21). Government of Canada invests in transportation infrastructure improvements at the Port of Hamilton. Government of Canada Newsroom. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/transport-canada/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-invests-in-transportation-infrastructure-improvements-at-the-port-of-hamilton.html

  7. myFM News/Oldies 107.7 Staff. (2019, August 20). Hydro to replace 90 kilometres of lines in the Upper Ottawa Valley. Pembroke Today. Retrieved from https://www.pembroketoday.ca/2019/08/20/hydro-to-replace-90-kilometres-of-lines-in-the-upper-ottawa-valley/

  8. Northern Ontario Business Staff. (2019, August 26). Expansion planned for Sault airport. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/regional-news/sault-ste-marie/expansion-planned-for-sault-airport-1658616

  9. Al-Shibeeb, D. (2019, August 09). Luxury Hotel Vie by Marriott is coming to Vaughan. Vaughan Citizen. Retrieved from https://www.yorkregion.com/news-story/9537346-luxury-hotel-vie-by-marriott-is-coming-to-vaughan/

  10. Trading Economics Staff. (2019, August). Canada Manufacturing PMI. Trading Economics. Retrieved from https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/manufacturing-pmi

  11. Statistics Canada. (2019, August). Table 16-10-0048-01 - Manufacturing sales by industry and province, monthly. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1610004801

  12. Statistics Canada. (2019, September). Table 12-10-0119-01 - International merchandise trade by province, commodity, and Principal Trading Partners. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1210011901

  13. Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2019, August 14). Minister Tassi announces investment to support almost 2,300 Canadian steel workers in southern Ontario. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/08/minister-tassi-announces-investment-to-support-almost-2300-canadian-steel-workers-in-southern-ontario.html

  14. Romphf, J. (2019, August 27). Feds fund commercial-scale ethanol facility that uses waste biomass. The Observer. Retrieved from https://www.theobserver.ca/news/local-news/feds-fund-commercial-scale-ethanol-facility-that-uses-waste-biomass

  15. De Bono, N. (2019, August 16). Canada's buy of London-made military vehicles doesn't lift cloud of Saudi deal. The London Free Press. Retrieved from https://lfpress.com/business/local-business/federal-defence-officials-set-for-announcement-at-londons-general-dynamics

  16. Medeiros, T. (2019, August 14). Third shift extended at Windsor Assembly Plant. AM800. Retrieved from http://www.iheartradio.ca/am800/news/video-third-shift-extended-at-windsor-assembly-plant-1.9756701

  17. Financial Times Staff. (2019, August 07). Gold prices top $1,500 as haven rally accelerates. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/4dafb482-b91d-11e9-96bd-8e884d3ea203

  18. Impact Assessment Agency of Canada. (2019, August 19). Goliath Gold Project — Environmental Assessment Decision. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/impact-assessment-agency/news/2019/08/goliath-gold-project--environmental-assessment-decision.html

  19. Statistics Canada. (2019, August). Table 20-10-0008-01 - Retail trade sales by province and territory. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/cv.action?pid=2010000801

  20. DH Toronto Staff. (2019, August 22). Lush Cosmetics hiring more than 500 full-time positions in Toronto. Daily Hive Toronto. Retrieved from https://dailyhive.com/toronto/lush-cosmetics-jobs-toronto

  21. AGCO Staff. (2019, August 21). 42 applicants notified to apply for a cannabis Retail Store Authorization in Ontario. Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario. Retrieved from https://www.agco.ca/42-applicants-notified-apply-cannabis-retail-store-authorization-ontario

  22. Patterson, C. (2019, August 13). Zellers' last 2 remaining stores to close. Retail Insider. Retrieved from https://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2019/8/zellers-last-2-remaining-stores-to-close-analysis

  23. Ministry of Children, Community and Social Services. (2019, August 06). Ontario Adding More Mental Health and Addictions Services for Indigenous Communities. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/mcys/en/2019/08/ontario-adding-more-mental-health-and-addiction-services-for-indigenous-communities.html

  24. Crosby, D. (2019, August 20). South East Grey Community Health Centre has a permanent home. Erin Advocate. Retrieved from https://www.southwesternontario.ca/news-story/9558955-south-east-grey-community-health-centre-has-a-permanent-home/

  25. Lapierre, M. (2019, August 28). Toronto District School Board losing almost 300 staff because of Ford government cuts. Glove and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/toronto/article-toronto-district-school-board-losing-almost-300-staff-because-of-ford/?cmpid=rss&click=dlvr.it

  26. Rushowy, K. and Teotonio, I. (2019, September 03). Ontario students head back to school amid job cuts and looming labour strife. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/politics/provincial/2019/09/03/ontario-students-head-back-to-school-amid-job-cuts-and-looming-labour-strife.html

  27. CBC News Staff. (2019, August 28). TDSB to cut nearly 300 positions due to provincial cuts, report says. CBC News Toronto. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/tdsb-cuts-ontario-lecce-1.5263420?cmp=rss

  28. Rushowy, K. and Teotonio, I. (2019, September 05). Teachers who lost their jobs amid budget cuts left ‘frustrated' by uncertain future.  Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2019/09/04/teachers-who-lost-their-jobs-amid-budget-cuts-left-frustrated-by-uncertain-future.html

  29. Frisque, G. (2019, August 21). City contributing $7.3M for Brampton Algoma University campus expansion. BramptonGuardian. Retrieved from https://www.bramptonguardian.com/news-story/9558516-city-contributing-7-3m-for-brampton-algoma-university-campus-expansion/

  30. Patterson, C. (2019, August 7). Drake's 'OVO' Brand Continues Canadian Store Expansion with High Profile Location. Retail Insider. Retrieved from https://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2019/8/drakes-ovo-octobers-very-own-continues-canadian-store-expansion-with-high-profile-location

  31. Patterson, C. (2019, August 8). Luxury Brand ‘TAG Heuer' to Open 1st Standalone Corporate Store in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2019/8/luxury-brand-tag-heuer-to-open-1st-standalone-corporate-store-in-canada

  32. NewmarketToday Staff. (2019, August 15). John's No Frills opening Aug. 22 in Newmarket. NewmarketToday. Retrieved from https://www.newmarkettoday.ca/local-news/johns-no-frills-opening-aug-22-in-newmarket-1639257

  33. Newport, A. (2019, August 25). On-Trend Store Officially Open at Erin Mills Town Centre in Mississauga. InSauga. Retrieved from https://www.insauga.com/on-trend-store-officially-open-at-erin-mills-town-centre-in-mississauga

  34. Toronto.com Staff. (2019, August 28). Kitchen Stuff Plus opens at Scarborough Town Centre. Toronto.com. Retrieved from https://www.toronto.com/news-story/9548965-kitchen-stuff-plus-opens-at-scarborough-town-centre/

  35. DH Toronto Staff. (2019, August 22). Lush Cosmetics hiring more than 500 full-time positions in Toronto. Daily Hive. Retrieved from https://dailyhive.com/toronto/lush-cosmetics-jobs-toronto

  36. Manufacturing Automation Staff. (2019, August 22). Global Plas receives almost $2.5M from feds for robotics and automation. Manufacturing Automation. Retrieved from https://www.automationmag.com/industry-news/news/9588-global-plas-receives-almost-$25m-from-feds-for-robotics-and-automation

  37. Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario. (2019, July 30). FedDev Ontario supports new biotech facility in Mississauga. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/economic-development-southern-ontario/news/2019/07/feddev-ontario-supports-new-biotech-facility-in-mississauga.html

  38. Kirkwood, I. (2019, July 31). Invixium raises $4.5 million CAD in in debt financing for biometric security solution. betakit. Retrieved from https://betakit.com/invixium-raises-4-5-million-cad-in-in-debt-financing-for-biometric-security-solution/

  39. Simpson, M. (2019, August 16). Nudge rewards raises $12 million CAD. betakit. Retrieved from https://betakit.com/nudge-rewards-raises-12-million-cad/

  40. Simpson, M. (2019, August 22). Drop closes $58 million CAD series B with eyes on accelerated growth, going public. betakit. Retrieved from https://betakit.com/drop-closes-58-million-cad-series-b-with-eyes-on-accelerated-growth-going-public/

  41. Hale, A.S. (2019, August 27). Cannabis production facility to open in South Dundas. Standard-Freeholder. Retrieved from https://www.standard-freeholder.com/news/local-news/cannabis-production-facility-to-open-in-south-dundas/wcm/8bfa55bb-b63f-4f40-a584-77a7dc1b386b

  42. Vlasveld, M. (2019, August 21). New pot shop to open on Strandherd Drive in Barrhaven. OttawaMatters. Retrieved from https://www.ottawamatters.com/local-news/new-pot-shop-to-open-on-strandherd-drive-in-barrhaven-1650895

  43. Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2019, August 14). Minister Tassi announces investment to support almost 2,300 Canadian steel workers in southern Ontario. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/08/minister-tassi-announces-investment-to-support-almost-2300-canadian-steel-workers-in-southern-ontario.html

  44. CMO Staff. (2019, August 22). Advanced Manufacturing Supercluster project kicks off with NGen funding. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from https://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/financing/advanced-manufacturing-supercluster-project-kicks-off-with-ngen-funding-237734/

  45. Transport Canada. (2019, August 21). Government of Canada invests in transportation infrastructure improvements at the Port of Hamilton. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/transport-canada/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-invests-in-transportation-infrastructure-improvements-at-the-port-of-hamilton.html

  46. Rankin, C. (2019, August 19). Ontario government approves up to $12M for Greensville elementary school. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/ontario-government-approves-tender-greensville-elementary-school-hamilton-1.5252175

  47. Rankin, C. (2019, August 21). Winners of cannabis store lottery for Hamilton, Burlington, and Niagara announced. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/lottery-results-agco-cannabis-stores-1.5253034

  48. CBC News Staff. (2019, August 21). Pot lottery winners plan to set up shop in Kitchener, Guelph. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/kitchener-guelph-applicants-among-winners-of-latest-cannabis-retail-lottery-1.5254536

  49. Baker, J.K. (2019, August 31). Construction finally begins on Cambridge's $100M Gaslight District project. CTV News. Retrieved from https://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/construction-finally-begins-on-cambridge-s-100m-gaslight-district-project-1.4548390

  50. Simon, C. (2019, August 16). Get a parking fee break during Barrie's Dunlop Street reconstruction. Simcoe. Retrieved from https://www.simcoe.com/news-story/9551237-get-a-parking-fee-break-during-barrie-s-dunlop-street-reconstruction/

  51. Mendler, A. (2019, August 27). Midland to begin King St. reconstruction early. Simcoe. Retrieved from https://www.simcoe.com/news-story/9562202-midland-to-begin-king-st-reconstruction-early/

  52. OrilliaMatters Staff. (2019, August 15). Construction on Building Hope project to begin next month. OrilliaMatters. Retrieved from https://www.orilliamatters.com/local-news/construction-on-building-hope-project-to-begin-next-month-1640975

  53. de Bono, N. (2019, August 16). Canada's buy of London-made military vehicles doesn't lift cloud of Saudi deal. London Free Press. Retrieved from https://lfpress.com/business/local-business/federal-defence-officials-set-for-announcement-at-londons-general-dynamics

  54. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. (2019, August 08). Governments Of Canada and Ontario Invest in Affordable Housing in Oxford County. Government of Ontario. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/mma/en/2019/08/governments-of-canada-and-ontario-invest-in-affordable-housing-in-oxford-county.html

  55. Campbell, J. (2019, August 15). Campbellford recycling company to spend $20 million on expansion. Brighton Independent. Retrieved from https://www.northumberlandnews.com/news-story/9544580-campbellford-recycling-company-to-spend-20-million-on-expansion/

  56. Kawartha Now Staff. (2019, August 1). Graphic Packaging International of Cobourg receives $50,000 in federal funding. Kawartha Now. Retrieved from https://kawarthanow.com/2019/08/06/businessnow-august-6-2019/#graphic-packaging-international-of-cobourg-receives-50000-in-federal-funding

  57. Northern Ontario Business Staff. (2019, August 26). Expansion planned for Sault airport. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from https://www.northernontariobusiness.com/regional-news/sault-ste-marie/expansion-planned-for-sault-airport-1658616

  58. Bissonette, S. (2019, August 12). What's Going on Here: Highway 400 construction. ParrySound.com. Retrieved from https://www.parrysound.com/news-story/9544072-what-s-going-on-here-highway-400-construction/

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