Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: December 2015

Untitled Document

The Quarterly Edition of the Labour Market Bulletin is a look back over the past three months, providing an analysis of quarterly Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.

Overview

Labour Force Trends - Ontario employment improved for the third consecutive quarter

  • Employment increased by 12,800 in Ontario in the fourth quarter of 2015
  • There were employment gains in both full-time work (+10,600) and part-time work (+2,100)
  • The unemployment rate rose slightly for the second consecutive quarter, to 6.8%

Employment in Ontario rose by 12,800 in the fourth quarter of 2015, for the third consecutive quarter. Gains were observed in both full-time (+10,600) and part-time employment (+2,100), although unemployment also increased (+5,700) during the same period. As a result the unemployment rate inched up for the second quarter in a row, to 6.8%. However, Ontario's unemployment rate for youth aged 15–24 decreased by 0.3 percentage points to 14.3% as youth unemployment fell by 6,100.

Nationally, employment grew for the sixth consecutive quarter, as employment levels improved by 40,300 in the fourth quarter of 2015. Full-time employment saw a small increase of 8,200, whereas part-time employment, which had fallen for four successive quarters, rose by 32,100, its largest gain since 2013. Employment in Canada increased by 141,800 over the fourth quarter of 2014.

In the United States, non-farm payroll employment expanded by 720,000 in the fourth quarter of 2015. The U.S. unemployment rate has been falling every quarter since the second quarter of 2011, and dropped to 5.0% this quarter.

Compared to the fourth quarter of 2014 employment in Ontario grew by 40,800, with an expansion in full-time work (+103,600) countering the losses in part-time work (-62,800), while the unemployment rate inched down 0.1 percentage point.

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted quarterly data 4th Quarter 2015 3rd Quarter 2015 4th Quarter 2014 Quarterly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,435.4 11,402.1 11,311.9 33.3 0.3 123.5 1.1
Labour force ('000) 7,450.6 7,432.2 7,419.1 18.4 0.2 31.5 0.4
Employment ('000) 6,944.6 6,931.8 6,903.8 12.8 0.2 40.8 0.6
Full-time ('000) 5,652.6 5,642.0 5,549.0 10.6 0.2 103.6 1.9
Part-time ('000) 1,292.0 1,289.9 1,354.8 2.1 0.2 -62.8 -4.6
Unemployment ('000) 506.1 500.4 515.3 5.7 1.1 -9.2 -1.8
Unemployment rate (%) 6.8 6.7 6.9 0.1 - -0.1 -
Participation rate (%) 65.2 65.2 65.6 0.0 - -0.4 -
Employment rate (%) 60.7 60.8 61.0 -0.1 - -0.3 -

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey — CANSIM Table 282-0087

Ontario Quarterly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario monthly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table Ontario Quarterly employment and unemployment rate
Ontario Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Unemployment rate (%) Employment ('000)
4Q2009 9.2 6458.5
1Q2010 9.0 6,477.5
2Q2010 8.6 6,540.8
3Q2010 8.8 6,556.0
4Q2010 8.2 6,578.3
1Q2011 8.1 6,628.6
2Q2011 8.0 6,662
3Q2011 7.7 6,674.4
4Q2011 7.9 6,667.5
2Q2012 7.9 6,693.3
3Q2012 7.9 6,707.4
4Q2012 8.1 6,740.6
1Q2013 7.8 6,778.9
2Q2013 7.6 6,817.7
3Q2013 7.5 6,841.9
4Q2013 7.5 6,849.6
1Q2014 7.4 6,856.0
2Q2014 7.3 6,869.5
3Q2014 7.4 6,879.0
4Q2014 6.9 6,903.8
1Q2015 6.9 6,896.2
2Q2015 6.6 6,921.7
3Q2015 6.7 6,931.8
4Q2015 6.8 6,944.6

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Show data table Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth
Ontario Canada
Ontario (%) Canada (%)
4Q2009 0.6 0.5
1Q2010 0.3 0.5
2Q2010 1.0 0.7
3Q2010 0.2 0.2
4Q2010 0.3 0.3
1Q2011 0.8 0.5
2Q2011 0.5 0.3
3Q2011 0.2 0.4
4Q2011 -0.1 0.0
1Q2012 0.1 0.1
2Q2012 0.3 0.9
3Q2012 0.2 0.2
4Q2012 0.5 0.5
1Q2013 0.6 0.3
2Q2013 0.6 0.3
3Q2013 0.4 0.2
4Q2013 0.1 0.2
1Q2014 0.1 0.2
2Q2014 0.2 0.0
3Q2014 0.1 0.2
4Q2014 0.4 0.4
1Q2015 -0.1 0.2
2Q2015 0.4 0.2
3Q2015 0.1 0.2
4Q2015 0.2 0.2

Source :Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Ontario Quarterly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted data 4th Quarter 2015
%
3rd Quarter 2015
%
4th Quarter 2014
%
Quarterly variation
(% points)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Total 6.8 6.7 6.9 0.1 -0.1
25 years and over 5.5 5.4 5.5 0.1 0.0
Men - 25 years and over 5.5 5.5 5.6 0.0 -0.1
Women - 25 years and over 5.5 5.2 5.3 0.3 0.2
15 to 24 years 14.3 14.6 15.1 -0.3 -0.8
Men - 15 to 24 years 16.0 16.0 16.6 0.0 -0.6
Women - 15 to 24 years 12.5 13.2 13.6 -0.7 -1.1

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0087

Employment by industry

Employment in the goods-producing sector grew for the third consecutive quarter

Employment in the goods-producing sector grew in the fourth quarter of 2015 by 4,200. Manufacturing led the sector with gains of 5,800 but this was counterbalanced by losses in utilities (-5,800). Both construction (+4,700) and agriculture (+2,100) employment expanded while employment in the forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas industry (-2,600) declined, more than offsetting gains made in the third quarter.

Manufacturing employment increased for the third consecutive quarter, with encouraging sales figures emanating throughout the end of 2015. New vehicle sales in Canada rose for the third year in a row,Footnote 1 with a 2.5% increase over 2014.Footnote 2 Likewise, manufacturing sales in Ontario between October 2014 and October 2015 have increased by 1.6%,Footnote 3 as the Canadian dollar continued to depreciate, slowly helping boost exports.Footnote 4,Footnote 5 Important developments over the fourth quarter included the 600 jobs Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced it will add at the Windsor assembly plant,Footnote 6 and General Motors of Canada Ltd. announcing that it expects to hire more than 200 people at its CAMI Assembly plant in Ingersoll.Footnote 7 Furthermore, the Government of Ontario is investing in a multitude of expansions at local manufacturing facilities,Footnote 8,Footnote 9,Footnote 10,Footnote 11,Footnote 12,Footnote 13,Footnote 14,Footnote 15,Footnote 16,Footnote 17,Footnote 18 which is expected to add over 1,800 industry jobs going forward. However, there was some turnover in the industry during the quarter due to the evolving economy, with National Steel Car Limited in Hamilton temporarily laying off 500 workers until January 2016 due to the slump in demand for rail tanker cars,Footnote 19 and Maple Leaf Foods Inc. cutting more than 400 jobs in NovemberFootnote 20 due to restructuring. Additionally, Tenaris Algoma Tubes Inc. laid off approximately 230 workers in Sault Ste. Marie, citing global market conditions.Footnote 21

Employment in construction grew by 4,700 during the fourth quarter, with housing starts in the province flourishing, driven by increases in all types of units. Between the fourth quarters of 2014 and 2015, housing starts increased by 29.6%,Footnote 22 as prices in Ontario, especially in the Greater Toronto Area, continue to riseFootnote 23 and an abundance of new residential development advertisements persist.Footnote 24,Footnote 25,Footnote 26 The most significant news item for the industry heading into 2016 is the $333.2M contract EDCO was awarded to build the next phase of the York Viva Bus Rapid Transit, which is expected to create about 14,000 construction jobs.Footnote 27 Construction has also begun on the $16M Go Transit layover facility in Kitchener,Footnote 28 the $31M Raleigh Bus Maintenance and Storage Facility in Oshawa,Footnote 29 and Hydro Ottawa's new 29-megawatt hydroelectric station at Chaudière Falls.Footnote 30

On a year-over-year basis, employment in the good-producing sector increased by 21,800, led by construction (+22,500). Gains in this industry were partially offset by employment losses in both agriculture (-4,000) and utilities (-5,600).

The services-producing sector also grew for the third successive quarter

Services-producing sector employment in Ontario expanded by 8,600 in the fourth quarter of 2015. Increases came mostly from the health care and social assistance (+12,100), public administration (+9,100) and transportation and warehousing (+6,900) industries. However, employment growth was mitigated by the losses in several industries, most notably educational services (-15,000) and information, culture and recreation (-7,600).

Employment declined in the information, culture and recreation industry in three of the four quarters in 2015. The industry observed a number of layoff announcements during the fourth quarter, with news in November that Telus Corp. plans to cut 1,500 full-time jobs, albeit through voluntary departures and early retirements across Canada,Footnote 31 while Bell Media announced the elimination of 270 positions in its Toronto operations.Footnote 32 Channel Zero, CHCH's parent company, also laid off 167 staff in Hamilton this quarter; however, it was taken over by a privately held numbered company which rehired almost half of the staff.Footnote 33

Employment grew in public administration, putting an end to four consecutive quarterly declines, most notably due to the rise in temporary employment during the federal election in October. With news that Statistics Canada is planning to hire 35,000 temporary staff for the 2016 Census over the coming months,Footnote 34 growth for the industry may continue into 2016. Employment in health care and social assistance continued to show signs of strength despite cuts made to OHIP coverage of a number of medical services,Footnote 35 as of October 1st.

Trade industry employment faltered in the fourth quarter (-2,900) for the second time in 2015. Monthly retail sales were down slightly in the third quarter of the year but showed some signs of recovery in October heading into the holiday season.Footnote 36 Good news for retail employment included the opening of several retail stores across the province from grocery chainsFootnote 37 to gas stations.Footnote 38,Footnote 39 However, other stores such as the MediSystem Pharmacy, a division of Shoppers Drug Mart, closed in Brantford affecting 38 staff,Footnote 40 and a Smart Set in Pembroke Mall closed.Footnote 41 Heading into 2016, Ikea is set to expand its Pick-Up and Order Point stores into Whitby, Windsor,Footnote 42 St. Catharines,Footnote 43 and Kitchener.Footnote 44 Furthermore, Lowe's Canada will add seven more stores in Ontario over the next two years.Footnote 45 However, the retail trade industry still shows signs of instability as North by Northwest is closing its three clothing stores in Guelph, Waterloo and London,Footnote 46 the Valu-Mart in Brockville will be closing at the end of January 2016 affecting all employees,Footnote 47 and Richard Davis, a Belleville high-end clothing store is closing after two decades of service.Footnote 48

Between the fourth quarters of 2014 and 2015, employment in the services-producing sector increased by 19,000, led by the finance, insurance, real estate and leasing (+29,600) and the professional, scientific and technical services (+29,400) industries. Large decreases were observed in public administration (-20,100), which has deflated since its peak in 2013, and also in trade (-20,000).

Ontario Quarterly labour force statistics, by industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) 4th Quarter 2015 3rd Quarter 2015 4th Quarter 2014 Quarterly variation Yearly variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 6,944.6 6,931.8 6,903.8 12.8 0.2 40.8 0.6
Goods-producing sector 1,409.3 1,405.1 1,387.5 4.2 0.3 21.8 1.6
Agriculture 77.3 75.2 81.3 2.1 2.8 -4.0
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 44.1 46.7 37.3 -2.6 -5.6 6.8 18.2
Utilities 45.0 50.8 50.6 -5.8 -11.4 -5.6 -11.1
Construction 493.5 488.8 471.0 4.7 1.0 22.5 4.8
Manufacturing 749.4 743.6 747.3 5.8 0.8 2.1 0.3
Services-producing sector 5,535.3 5,526.7 5,516.3 8.6 0.2 19.0 0.3
Trade 1,032.5 1,035.4 1,052.5 -2.9 -0.3 -20.0 -1.9
Transportation and warehousing 328.5 321.6 316.8 6.9 2.1 11.7 3.7
Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 553.2 552.1 523.6 1.1 0.2 29.6 5.7
Professional, scientific and technical services 584.4 587.9 555.0 -3.5 -0.6 29.4 5.3
Business, building and other support services 332.1 331.7 340.2 0.4 0.1 -8.1 -2.4
Educational services 504.5 519.5 503.6 -15.0 -2.9 0.9 0.2
Health care and social assistance 821.5 809.4 811.1 12.1 1.5 10.4 1.3
Information, culture and recreation 306.0 313.6 320.6 -7.6 -2.4 -14.6 -4.6
Accommodation and food services 443.1 439.2 451.8 3.9 0.9 -8.7 -1.9
Other services 282.6 278.5 274.4 4.1 1.5 8.2 3.0
Public administration 346.7 337.6 366.8 9.1 2.7 -20.1 -5.5

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – CANSIM Table 282-0088

Regional analysis

Toronto led employment growth with a strong quarterly gain

Employment rose by 125,200 in the Toronto economic region between the fourth quarters of 2014 and 2015 (measured on a year-over-year, seasonally unadjusted basis). Toronto has been at the forefront of employment growth for much of 2015. During this period, both employment and participation rates increased, which is a sign of strengthening labour market conditions. Several large transit and infrastructure projects advanced in the region this quarter. Durham Region Transit broke ground on a new bus maintenance facility in Oshawa at a cost of $31M.Footnote 49 The Toronto Transit Commission continues work on six new subway stops as part of the Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project.Footnote 50 The extended subway line will feature the first subway stops located outside of the City of Toronto when complete in 2017. Construction will also get underway on the next phase of the York Viva Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) rapidways at a cost of $333M in 2016.Footnote 51

The Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula had a strong quarter as well with job gains of 15,900 between the fourth quarters of 2014 and 2015. There was a fair amount of activity in local manufacturing this quarter. Mitsui High-tec Inc. will start construction on a new manufacturing facility in Brantford at a cost of $18M to $20M.Footnote 52 The facility will be the first manufacturing plant in North America to build motor cores for hybrid vehicles. The plant will be in close proximity to some of the province's key automakers, including Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc. and Honda Canada Inc. In November 2015, Toyota announced that it would build the RAV4 sport utility vehicle, including the hybrid model, at its Cambridge plant starting in 2019.Footnote 53 Elsewhere in the region, P&H Milling Group will build a new flour mill in Hamilton at a cost of $45M.Footnote 54 This will be the first new flour mill in the province in 75 years.

The London and Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie economic regions also saw job gains between the fourth quarters of 2014 and 2015. One of the biggest announcements in London this quarter came from General Motors of Canada Company. The automaker is planning to hire more than 200 workers at its CAMI Assembly plant in Ingersoll over the next year.Footnote 55 In Waterloo, the technology sector received some good news. Shopify Inc. will add up to 270 staff to its new office later this yearFootnote 56 and TD Bank Group will open a new technology centre creating 120 jobs over the next year.Footnote 57

Employment fell in seven economic regions this quarter

The largest quarterly decline was in the Muskoka–Kawarthas economic region, where employment growth has been weak over the past few months. There have been a few hurdles to the start of winter recreation activities as of late. Warmer winter weather and less snow have delayed several ski hills from opening their slopes this quarter.Footnote 58 In addition, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry has closed the walleye fishery on Lake Scugog because of the declining fish population.Footnote 59

Further north in the province, ongoing weakness in the labour market continued in the Northeast and Northwest economic regions. Together, employment declined by 19,800 between the fourth quarters of 2014 and 2015 in these regions. The Township of Hornepayne, located in the Algoma District, received some discouraging news in mid-December, when Olav Haavaldsrud Timber Company halted production.Footnote 60 The lumber mill is the largest employer in the small community, employing about 40% of the Township's workforce. The company is not sure if it will resume operations at the lumber mill at this time, leaving 146 workers on temporary layoff.

Employment declined in the Stratford–Bruce Peninsula and Windsor–Sarnia economic regions as well. Another small community in rural Ontario received some disappointing news this quarter. The Kraft Heinz Company announced that it would close its food processing plant in St. Marys by 2017, cutting 214 jobs.Footnote 61 The plant has been a mainstay in the community for several decades. Meanwhile, in the Windsor¿Sarnia region, Shell Canada will cut staff at its Corunna refinery over the next two years.Footnote 62 The number of job losses is unknown at this time but will likely affect engineers and office support staff.

Job losses were also recorded this quarter in the province's easternmost economic regions of Kingston–Pembroke and Ottawa. Several retail and food service locations closed in the Kingston area over the past three monthsFootnote 63 while job cuts from Bell Media affected local production, media, and sales positions in Ottawa.Footnote 64

Ontario Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region

Ontario Quarterly labour force statistics, by economic region
3-month moving averages
seasonally unadjusted data
Employment Unemployment rate
4th Quarter 2015
('000)
3rd Quarter 2015
('000)
Yearly variation
(%)
4th Quarter 2015
('000)
4th Quarter 2014
('000)
Yearly variation
(% points)
Ontario 6,948.2 6,903.2 0.7 6.2 6.4 -0.2
Economic Regions
Ottawa 690.3 701.4 -1.6 5.5 5.6 -0.1
Kingston—Pembroke 197.1 210.3 -6.3 5.6 6.7 -1.1
Muskoka—Kawarthas 155.7 190.5 -18.3 6.3 5.5 0.8
Toronto 3,365.6 3,240.4 3.9 6.6 7.2 -0.6
Kitchener—Waterloo—Barrie 718.7 714.3 0.6 4.8 4.8 0.0
Hamilton—Niagara Peninsula 720.7 704.8 2.3 6.1 5.5 0.6
London 332.8 323.8 2.8 5.3 5.8 -0.5
Windsor—Sarnia 287.3 301.8 -4.8 8.0 7.6 0.4
Stratford—Bruce Peninsula 137.4 153.7 -10.6 5.7 4.3 1.4
Northeast 243.6 261.6 -6.9 7.5 5.0 2.5
Northwest 98.9 100.7 -1.8 5.4 5.5 -0.1

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey–CANSIM Table 282-0122

Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q3-2014 to Q3-2015
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q3-2014 to Q3-2015
Show table data Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region Q3-2014 to Q3-2015
Ontario Quarterly Employment Growth, by Economic Region
Muskoka-Kawarthas -18.3
Stratford-Bruce Peninsula -10.6
Northeast -6.9
Kingston-Pembroke -6.3
Windsor-Sarnia -4.8
Northwest -1.8
Ottawa -1.6
Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie 0.6
Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula 2.3
London 2.8
Toronto 3.9

Source :Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Division, Ontario
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

CBC News staff. (January 5, 2016). Canada sets record for new vehicle sales in 2015. CBCNews.ca. Retrieved from:http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/canada-sets-record-for-new-vehicle-sales-in-2015-1.3390498

Return to footnote 1

Footnote 2

Desrosiers. (January 5, 2015). December Report 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.desrosiers.ca/pdfs/sales.pdf

Return to footnote 2

Footnote 3

Statistics Canada. Table 304-0015 - Manufacturing sales, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and province, monthly (dollars)

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Ljunggren, D. (January 6, 2016). Weak loonie and U.S. ‘revival’ bump up Canadian exports, trim trade deficit. Financial Post. Retrieved from: http://business.financialpost.com/news/economy/weak-loonie-and-u-s-revival-bump-up-canadian-exports-trim-trade-deficit

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 380-0070

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Macaluso, G. (December 15, 2015). What 1,000 good paying jobs mean for Windsor-Essex. Windsor Star. Retrieved from: http://windsorstar.com/business/local-business/what-1000-good-paying-jobs-mean-for-windsor-essex

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

CTV London staff. (October 13, 2015). Cami plant in Ingersoll looking to hire. CTV News London. Retrieved from: http://london.ctvnews.ca/cami-plant-in-ingersoll-looking-to-hire-1.2608101

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 27, 2015). Ontario Partnering with Grand River Foods to Create Jobs in Cambridge. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/ontario-partnering-with-grand-river-foods-to-create-jobs-in-cambridge.html

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. (November 25, 2015). Ontario Supporting Super-Pufft Snacks in Mississauga. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2015/11/ontario-supporting-super-pufft-snacks-in-mississauga.html

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 20, 2015). Province Partnering with Precision Resource Canada Ltd. to Expand and Create Jobs. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/province-partnering-with-precision-resource-canada-ltd-to-expand-and-create-jobs.html?utm_source=digest&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=p

Return to footnote 10

Footnote 11

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 20, 2015). Province Partnering with Walinga Inc. to Create Jobs in Guelph and Fergus. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/province-partnering-with-walinga-inc-to-create-jobs-in-guelph-and-fergus.html

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 17, 2015). Ontario Adding Manufacturing Jobs in the Cambridge Region. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/ontario-adding-manufacturing-jobs-in-the-cambridge-region.html

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (October 23, 2015). Ontario Helps Brass Fittings Maker Grow its Business. News Release. Retrieved from: http://www.news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/10/ontario-helps-brass-fittings-maker-grow-its-business.html?_ga=1.5364916.620574188.1444049847

Return to footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 25, 2015). Ontario Investing in Two Companies in the Waterloo Region. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/ontario-investing-in-two-companies-in-the-waterloo-region.html

Return to footnote 14 referrer

Footnote 15

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 20, 2015). Ontario Partnering with Urban Quarry to Create Jobs in Ottawa. News Release. Retrieved from: http://www.news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/ontario-partnering-with-urban-quarry-to-create-jobs-in-ottawa.html?_ga=1.237602691.2045989021.1441378240

Return to footnote 15 referrer

Footnote 16

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (November 20, 2015). Province Partnering with Canada Tubeform to Expand and Create Jobs. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/11/province-partnering-with-canada-tubeform-to-expand-and-create-jobs.html

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure. (December 4, 2015). Ontario Supporting New Manufacturing Jobs in London and Guelph. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/medt/en/2015/12/ontario-supporting-new-manufacturing-jobs-in-london-and-guelph.html

Return to footnote 17 referrer

Footnote 18

Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. (November 2, 2015). Ontario Investing in Parry Sound Organic Food Manufacturer. Bulletin. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mndmf/en/2015/11/ontario-investing-in-parry-sound-organic-food-manufacturer.html

Return to footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

Arnold, S. (December 4, 2015), National Steel Car to lay off 500 before Christmas. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6157921-national-steel-car-to-lay-off-500-before-christmas/

Return to footnote 19 referrer

Footnote 20

Pinto, A.J. & Nickel, R. (November 25, 2015). Meat packer Maple Leaf Foods to cut 400 management jobs. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/meat-packer-maple-leaf-foods-to-cut-400-jobs/article27474645/

Return to footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

Armstrong, K. (October 15, 2015). Tenaris confirms 230 layoffs (updated). Sootoday.com. Retrieved from: http://www.sootoday.com/content/news/details.asp?c=99317

Return to footnote 21 referrer

Footnote 22

Statistics Canada CANSIM Table 027-0051 - Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts in all centres 10,000 and over, Canada, provinces, and census metropolitan areas, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, monthly (units)

Return to footnote 22 referrer

Footnote 23

Statistics Canada. Table 327-0046 - New housing price index, monthly (index, 2007=100)

Return to footnote 23 referrer

Footnote 24

Mattamy Homes. Retrieved from: http://mattamyhomes.com/gta.aspx

Return to footnote 24 referrer

Footnote 25

Great Gulf. Retrieved from: http://greatgulf.com/houses

Return to footnote 25 referrer

Footnote 26

Toronto Star. Retrieved from: http://www.newinhomes.com/ontario/builders-15.html

Return to footnote 26 referrer

Footnote 27

Ministry of Transportation. (September 28, 2015). Ontario Making Progress on York Viva Bus Rapid Transit. News Release. Retrieved from: https://news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2015/09/ontario-making-progress-on-york-viva-bus-rapid-transit.html

Return to footnote 27 referrer

Footnote 28

Outhit, J. (November 16, 2015). Work begins on $16M Kitchener facility to add GO trains. Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved from: http://www.therecord.com/news-story/6120227-work-begins-on-16m-kitchener-facility-to-add-go-trains/

Return to footnote 28 referrer

Footnote 29

Gilligan, K. (November 25, 2015). Durham Region breaks ground on new transit facility. Oshawa This Week. Retrieved from: http://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/6134867-durham-region-breaks-ground-on-new-transit-facility/

Return to footnote 29 referrer

Footnote 30

CNW staff. (November 16, 2015). Hydro Ottawa's clean energy expansion officially underway at Chaudière Falls. www.newswire.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/hydro-ottawas-clean-energy-expansion-officially-underway-at-chaudiere-falls-550611421.html

Return to footnote 30 referrer

Footnote 31

The Canadian Press. (November 5, 2015). Telus to cut 1,500 jobs but hike dividend 5%. CBCNews.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/telus-to-cut-1-500-jobs-but-hike-dividend-5-1.3305210

Return to footnote 31 referrer

Footnote 32

The Canadian Press. (November 6, 2015). Bell to lay off 380 people in Toronto, Montreal. CBCNews.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/bell-notice-layoffs-montreal-toronto-1.3307171

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Footnote 33

Paddon, N. (December 14, 2015). CHCH TV suspends newscasts amid bankruptcy and restricting moves. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from: http://www.thespec.com/news-story/6180588-chch-tv-suspends-newscasts-amid-bankruptcy-and-restructuring-moves/

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Footnote 34

Tencer, D. (January 4, 2016). Statistics Canada Hiring 35,000 For 2016 Census That Will Replace Harper's Voluntary Survey. The Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2016/01/04/statscan-hiring-census-2016_n_8913136.html

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Footnote 35

Ontario Medical Association. (September 14, 2015). Government of Ontario threatens patient-focused care by further cutting funding for physician services. Retrieved from: https://www.oma.org/Mediaroom/PressReleases/Pages/cuttingfundingforphyservices.aspx

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Footnote 36

Statistics Canada. Table 080-0020 - Retail trade, sales by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), monthly (dollars)

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Footnote 37

Cole, N. (November 27, 2015). No Frills store opens in Midland. Simcoe.com. Retrieved from: http://www.simcoe.com/news-story/6139532-no-frills-store-opens-in-midland/

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Footnote 38

Ibbotson, C. (November 26, 2015). Wellington welcomes Tim Hortons, MacEwan Petroleum to Main Street. Picton Gazette. Retrieved from: http://issuu.com/pictongazette/docs/picton_gazette_nov26

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Footnote 39

Haaima, S. (November 18, 2015). New Mac's Milk store in Renfrew open for business. Renfrew Mercury. Retrieved from: http://www.insideottawavalley.com/news-story/6124602-new-mac-s-milk-store-in-renfrew-open-for-business/

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Footnote 40

Ruby, M. (November 16, 2015). Business: MediSystem Pharmacy closes Brantford location. Brantford Expositor. Retrieved from: http://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/2015/11/16/business-medisystem-pharmacy-closes-brantford-location

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Footnote 41

Layman, J. (October 20, 2015). Businesses Leave Mall. Ottawa Valley Business. Retrieved from: http://www.ovbusiness.com/userfiles/file/2015%20Issues/Ottawa%20Valley%20Business%20-%20October%2020%2C%202015.pdf

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Footnote 42

The Square staff. (October 16, 2015). IKEA Opening Windsor Pick-Up Location. The Square. Retrieved from: http://www.windsorsquare.ca/archives/87690/ikea-opening-windsor-pick-up-location

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Footnote 43

CNW staff. (September 28, 2016). IKEA Canada Continues Expansion Efforts with New Pick-Up and Order Point in St. Catharines, ON. www.newswire.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/ikea-canada-continues-expansion-efforts-with-new-pick-up-and-order-point-in-st-catharines-on-529791681.html

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Footnote 44

CBC News staff. (November 24, 2015). Ikea coming to Kitchener. CBCNews.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/ikea-coming-to-kitchener-1.3332494

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Footnote 45

The Canadian Press staff. (October 13, 2015). Lowe's seeks Quebec suppliers for expansion. The Canadian Press. Retrieved from: http://blackburnnews.com/bri-business/2015/10/13/lowes-seeks-quebec-suppliers-for-expansion/

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Footnote 46

Davis, B. (December 3, 2015). North by Northwest clothing chain bankrupt. Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved from: http://www.ourlondon.ca/news-story/6158521-north-by-northwest-clothing-chain-bankrupt/

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Footnote 47

Zajac, R. (October 1, 2015). Brockville's Valu-Mart closing. Recorder and Times. Retrieved from: http://www.recorder.ca/2015/10/01/brockvilles-valu-mart-closing

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Footnote 48

Miller, J. (September 24, 2015). Courneyea closing downtown shop. The Intelligencer. Retrieved from: http://www.intelligencer.ca/2015/09/24/courneyea-closing-downtown-shop

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Footnote 49

Gilligan, K. (2015, November 25). Durham Region breaks ground on new transit facility. durhamregion.com. Retrieved from: http://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/6134867-durham-region-breaks-ground-on-new-transit-facility/

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Footnote 50

Landau, J. (2015, November 16). Construction Progresses on Six New GTA Subway Stops. UrbanToronto.ca. Retrieved from: http://urbantoronto.ca/news/2015/11/construction-progresses-six-new-gta-subway-stations

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Footnote 51

DCN News Services. (2015, October 16). EDCO scores $333 million Viva contract. Daily Commercial News. Retrieved from: http://dailycommercialnews.com/Infrastructure/News/2015/10/EDCO-scores-333-million-Viva-contract-1010769W/

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Footnote 52

Shypula, B. (2015, December 11). Brantford lands hybrid engine parts plant. Brant News. Retrieved from: http://www.brantnews.com/news-story/6179945-brantford-lands-hybrid-engine-parts-plant/

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Footnote 53

CBC News. (2015, November 10). Toyota to make RAV4 in plant that lost Corolla production. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/toyota-rav4-cambridge-1.3312297

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Footnote 54

Canadian Manufacturing. (2015, December). P&H Milling to build Ontario's first new flour mill in 75 years. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from: http://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/manufacturing/ph-milling-to-build-ontarios-first-new-flour-mill-in-75-years-158754/

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Footnote 55

CTV News. (2015, October 14). GM expects to hire more than 200 people for CAMI plant. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/gm-expects-to-hire-more-than-200-people-for-cami-plant-1.2609911

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Footnote 56

Bellemare, A. (2015, October 01). Shopify expands Waterloo office to 300 people. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/kitchener-waterloo/shopify-expands-waterloo-office-to-300-people-1.3250334

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Footnote 57

TD Bank Group. (2015, October 01). TD announced 120 new jobs over next year in Waterloo region. TD Bank Group. Retrieved from: http://jobs.td.com/en-CA/2015/10/01/td-announces-120-new-jobs-over-next-year-in-waterloo-region/

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Footnote 58

CTV News. (2015, December 29). Sleet and snow: Winter arrived in full force across the region. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://barrie.ctvnews.ca/sleet-and-snow-winter-arrives-in-full-force-across-the-region-1.2716874

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Footnote 59

Kawartha Lakes This Week. (2015, December 02). Ministry to close walleye fishing on Lakes Scugog. mykawarthas.com. Retrieved from: http://www.mykawartha.com/news-story/6142247-ministry-to-close-walleye-fishing-on-lakes-scugog/

Hall, C. (2015, December 03). Province imposes ban on Lake Scugog walleye fishing. durhamregion.com. Retrieved from: http://www.durhamregion.com/news-story/6156174-province-imposes-ban-on-lake-scugog-walleye-fishing/

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Footnote 60

CBC News. (2015, December 09). Hornepayne, Ont. Lumber mill shutdown ‘devastates’ residents. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/hornepayne-lumber-mill-shutdown-1.3357255

CBC News. (2015, December 18). Hornepayne, Ont. Lumber mill workers wait for news. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/hornepayne-lumber-mill-shutdown-1.3371763

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Footnote 61

CTV News. (2015, November 04). St. Marys plant among 7 Kraft Heinz factories closing in North America. CTV News. Retrieved from: http://london.ctvnews.ca/st-marys-plant-among-7-kraft-heinz-factories-closing-in-north-america-1.2642929

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Footnote 62

Morden, P. (2015, December 10). Shell not disclosing number of jobs being lost at refinery. theobserver.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.theobserver.ca/2015/12/10/shell-not-disclosing-number-of-jobs-being-lost-at-refinery

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Footnote 63

Abma, S. (2015, October 05). Neat Café closes after poor festival showing. CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/neat-cafe-closes-burnstown-music-festival-1.3257588

McVicar, B. (2015, October 01). W. BRICE MCVICAR: A big loss for downtown. intelligencer.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.intelligencer.ca/2015/09/30/w-brice-mcvicar-a-big-loss-for-downtown

Ottawa Valley Business Group. (2015, October 20). Ottawa Valley Business, Issue No. 168, page 03. Ottawa Valley Business Group. Retrieved from: http://www.ovbusiness.com/userfiles/file/2015%20Issues/Ottawa%20Valley%20Business%20-%20October%2020,%202015.pdf

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Footnote 64

Cobb, C. (2015, November 18). Anchor Away: Meehan loses job as Bell cuts CTV, CJOH media jobs. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/ctv-co-anchor-cfra-staff-laid-off-in-bell-media-job-cuts

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