Labour Market Bulletin - Ontario: 2015 (Annual Edition)

The Annual Edition of the Labour Market Bulletin is a look back over the past year, providing an analysis of annual Labour Force Survey results for the province of Ontario, including the regions of Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula, Kingston–Pembroke, Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie, London, Muskoka–Kawarthas, Northeast, Northwest, Ottawa, Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Toronto and Windsor–Sarnia.


Labour Force Trends — employment in Ontario increased for the sixth consecutive year in 2015

  • Employment in Ontario increased by 45,300 in 2015, after growing by 54,500 in 2014
  • Employment gains in full–time work (+78,200) more than offset losses in part–time work (–32,900)
  • The unemployment rate fell for the third consecutive year, decreasing by 0.5 percentage points to 6.8%

Employment rose by 45,300 in Ontario in 2015, marking the province's sixth consecutive yearly increase. The gains were driven by strength in full–time employment, which increased by 78,200, as part–time employment observed losses of 32,900, its first decrease in the province since 2006.

The unemployment rate declined by 0.5 percentage points to improve to 6.8%, its lowest rate since 2008, as unemployment fell for the third consecutive year (–7.0%). The youth unemployment rate also fell to 14.7%. However, there was a slight decrease in both the provincial participation rate and employment rate, as increases in the labour force and employment lagged that of the overall working–age population.

The labour market in Ontario is expected to strengthen in 2016, with the emphasis of economic growth having shifted away from provinces such as Alberta that have struggled in light of the fall in crude oil prices. Employment in Ontario is expected to grow by about 1.1% in 2016, according to various forecasters, on account of rising export activity to the United States for manufactured goods and an improvement in retail spending from a confident household sector, while the provincial unemployment rate is expected to average 6.7%.

In Canada, employment increased by 144,400 (+0.8%) in 2015, but the employment rate dropped slightly over the year due to a larger growth in the population aged 15 and over. There were other similarities between the Canadian and Ontario labour markets, with all of the gains in national employment coming from full–time work (+1.3%) as part–time employment fell by 1.3%. However, the unemployment rate remained steady at 6.9% in 2015 in Canada as the number of unemployed increased, particularly in the western provinces, due to the decline in oil prices. Looking forward to 2016, employment is projected to increase by about 0.6% while the national unemployment rate is expected to average 7.1%.

In contrast with the modest employment gains in Ontario and Canada, total non–farm payroll employment in the United States strengthened considerably, increasing by 2.94 million (+2.1%) in 2015.Footnote 1 According to the Current Population Survey, the federal unemployment rate fell to 5.3%, its lowest unemployment rate since 2007.Footnote 2 While the federal participation rate continues to hover at a low level, overall, the optimistic mood around the American labour market is expected to translate into continued strength in 2016, with the unemployment rate projected to fall to around 4.8%.

Annual labour force statistics, for Ontario
Seasonally unadjusted data
Year 2014 to 2015 2013 to 2014
2015 2014 2013 Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 11,385.6 11,269.3 11,142.1 116.3 1.0 127.2 1.1
Labour force ('000) 7,426.1 7,418.6 7,383.8 7.5 0.1 34.8 0.5
Employment ('000) 6,923.2 6,877.9 6,823.4 45.3 0.7 54.5 0.8
Full-time ('000) 5,618.2 5,540.0 5,489.5 78.2 1.4 50.5 0.9
Part–time ('000) 1,305.0 1,337.9 1,334.0 –32.9 –2.5 3.9 0.3
Unemployment ('000) 502.9 540.7 560.3 –37.8 –7.0 –19.6 –3.5
Unemployment rate (%) 6.8 7.3 7.6 –0.5 –0.3
Participation rate (%) 65.2 65.8 66.3 –0.6 –0.5
Employment rate (%) 60.8 61.0 61.2 –0.2 –0.2

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey — CANSIM Table 282–0002

Annual employment and unemployment rate, for Ontario
Annual employment and unemployment rate, for Ontario. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Annual employment and unemployment rate, for Ontario
Annual employment and unemployment rate, for Ontario
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Employment ('000) 6,537.8 6,658.4 6,702.6 6,823.4 6,877.9 6,923.2
Unemployment rate (%) 8.7 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.3 6.8
Annual employment growth, for Ontario
Annual employment growth, for Ontario. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Annual employment growth, for Ontario
Annual employment growth, for Ontario
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Ontario 1.6% 1.8% 0.7% 1.8% 0.8% 0.7%
Canada 1.4% 1.5% 1.3% 1.5% 0.6% 0.8%
Annual unemployment rates, by gender and age, for Ontario
Seasonally unadjusted data 2015
2014 to 2015
(% points)
2013 to 2014
(% points)
Total 6.8 7.3 7.6 –0.5 –0.3
25 years and over 5.4 5.8 6.1 –0.4 –0.3
Men — 25 years and over 5.5 5.9 6.3 –0.4 –0.4
Women — 25 years and over 5.3 5.6 5.8 –0.3 –0.2
15 to 24 years 14.7 15.7 16.2 –1.0 –0.5
Men — 15 to 24 years 16.3 16.7 17.3 –0.4 –0.6
Women — 15 to 24 years 13.1 14.7 15.0 –1.6 –0.3

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey — CANSIM Table 282–0002


Employment in the goods–producing sector increased for the first time since 2012

For the first time in three years, employment in Ontario's goods–producing sector rose with job gains of 19,400 in 2015. The construction industry led the way for the goods–producing sector with a gain of 20,000 in 2015. Housing starts were much higher than in 2014 with most of the gains in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area.Footnote 3 The value of building permits was also up in both residential and non–residential construction in 2015.Footnote 4 Some of the larger projects that broke ground in the province included the Highway 407 East Phase 2 project in the eastern Greater Toronto Area at a cost of $1.2B.Footnote 5 The new Peter Sutherland Sr. Generating Station in Cochrane District valued at $300M.Footnote 6 The replacement of bridges and other infrastructure along the Trent–Severn Waterway expected to cost about $285M.Footnote 7 And construction on the new Health Sciences Building at Carleton University in Ottawa at a cost of $52M.Footnote 8 Upcoming investments in infrastructure from the federal and provincial governments may lead to more projects across Ontario in the near term.Footnote 9,Footnote 10

Employment declined in manufacturing for the third year in a row in Ontario in 2015. Although employment growth remains soft, other related indicators are showing some promising signs, especially in the second half of 2015. The value of exports has grown steadily topping 2014 figures,Footnote 11 and manufacturing sales have increased so far in 2015 compared to the previous year.Footnote 12 Some of this gain has come from higher automotive sales in Canada and the United States.Footnote 13 In 2015, the provincial automotive industry saw some of its largest investments in recent time. Several assembly plants and automotive parts suppliers along the southern Ontario corridor geared up for more work. FCA Canada Inc. retooled its Windsor Assembly Plant for its next generation of minivans at a cost of $2B.Footnote 14 The automaker is planning to add at least 600 new workers to its production line. Ford Motor Company of Canada Limited retooled its Oakville Assembly Complex in early 2015 to prepare for the global launch of the Ford Edge crossover vehicle.Footnote 15 To prepare for the new line, Ford boosted its workforce at the plant by adding 400 new workers. Despite production of the Camaro vehicle moving to Michigan, General Motors of Canada Company (GM) invested in its facilities as well. GM announced that it would invest $560M in its Ingersoll CAMI Automotive plant,Footnote 16 and another $12M in its Oshawa Vehicle Assembly site to keep the Consolidated Line running for at least one more year, providing some relief to workers.Footnote 17 Meanwhile, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc. announced that it would invest $421M in its Woodstock and Cambridge sites.Footnote 18 The automaker will also invest $500M to start building the RAV4 at its Cambridge North Assembly plant after it transfers production of the Corolla to Mexico in 2019.Footnote 19 Honda Canada Inc. had its own milestone in Alliston in 2015.Footnote 20 For the first time, a plant outside of Japan has become the lead supplier for a new global model–the 2016 Honda Civic. These positive steps have spurred some local parts suppliers and tool, die, and mold shops to sustain and expand operations helping Ontario's manufacturing heartland.Footnote 21,Footnote 22

Most analysts view the effects of lower oil prices and its impact on the Canadian dollar as beneficial for local manufacturers. But not all producers are benefitting in Ontario. ContiTech AG will close its plant in Bowmanville in mid–2016 because of less demand for conveyor belts used by the oil, mining, and coal industries.Footnote 23 In northern Ontario, Tenaris AlgomaTubes Inc. has gone through a series of challenges because of less demand for steel pipes.Footnote 24 The oil and gas industry is a large market for steel goods. With lower steel prices, and greater foreign competition, steelmakers such as Essar Steel Algoma Inc. in Sault Ste. Marie and U.S. Steel Canada in Hamilton may be entering an uncertain time.Footnote 25 Elsewhere in the energy sector, the multibillion–dollar planned refurbishments of the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station and the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station have already created new opportunities for local companies.Footnote 26 Laker Energy Products Ltd. signed a contract with Bruce Power to support refurbishment activities valued at $35M.Footnote 27 Aecon Group Inc., ATS Automation Tooling Systems Inc., and BWXT Canada Ltd. are also preparing to support work at the Darlington site.Footnote 28 The upcoming refurbishment projects will be some of the largest infrastructure investments to take place in the province.

Employment in the services–producing sector continues to grow in Ontario

Employment in the services–producing sector grew by 25,800 in 2015. Employment in this sector has been rising since 2010. However, over the past couple of years, employment seems to be growing at a slower pace. In 2015, employment fell in the majority of industries in the services–producing sector but strong gains in finance, insurance, real estate and leasing, educational services, professional, scientific and technical services, and health care and social assistance were able to offset these losses.

Most of the gains in the finance, insurance, real estate and leasing industry came from greater real estate and leasing activity in the province. Improving economic conditions in Ontario may continue to increase leasing activity for industrial and commercial space, and machinery and equipment. The housing market also remains strong but changes to mortgage regulations may affect sales growth, especially in the Greater Toronto Area, when the new rules take effect in mid–February 2016.Footnote 29 Meanwhile, some of Canada's largest banks restructured to lower costs and streamline services because of new technologies in the industry.Footnote 30 To help keep pace with new banking concepts, the Bank of Nova Scotia is investing in a digital factory in TorontoFootnote 31 and TD Bank Group is setting up a technology centre in Waterloo.Footnote 32

There were quite a few developments in some of the scientific and technical hubs in the province. The Guelph area is a key centre for the agri–food industry in Ontario. In 2015, NSF–GFTC started construction on its new Canadian siteFootnote 33 and the Livestock Research and Innovation Centre Dairy Facility opened just outside of Elora at a cost of $25M.Footnote 34 To further research in power generation, two laboratories opened in the Kingston area in 2015. The Canadian Nuclear Laboratories opened a new centre to study hydrogen technologies in Chalk River at a cost of $55MFootnote 35 and Queen's University opened its Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory at a cost of $17M.Footnote 36 The technology cluster in Waterloo Region also received a boost. Communitech Corporation announced that it would create an Open Data ExchangeFootnote 37 and Shopify Inc. announced that it would expand operations in the area.Footnote 38

Employment fell in transportation and warehousing in Ontario in 2015. The nation's two largest railway companies are coping with lower freight volumes because of fewer commodity shipments. Canadian National Railway Company issued layoff notices and is currently under a hiring freeze while Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd. cut workers across its operations in 2015.Footnote 39 Reduced shipments of oil are hurting the demand for railway tankers as well. National Steel Car Limited issued layoff notices in late 2015 but expects to recall most of the workers when it starts production on two new lines.Footnote 40 There was some positive news in air transportation though. The John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport opened a new cargo centre at a cost of $12MFootnote 41 and the Sioux Lookout Municipal Airport will undergo a large renovation at a cost of more than $12M.Footnote 42 Some analysts expect that airline passenger traffic will more than double over the next few decades in southern Ontario.Footnote 43 To help meet this growth, some of the smaller airports in the province may need to increase capacity to support operations at Toronto Pearson International Airport.

The trade industry saw large retailers exit the market, cut staff, and consolidate operations. Despite higher retail sales in 2015, the industry continues to face more competition and greater use of online and digital offerings.Footnote 44 The largest news came from Target Canada Co. The American–based retailer announced that it would close all of its stores by April 2015 after less than two years in the Canadian market.Footnote 45 The closure affected thousands of employees at retail stores, distribution centres, and head office functions in Ontario. Other large closures came from Best Buy Canada Ltd.,Footnote 46 Black's Photo Corporation,Footnote 47 and Mexx Canada affecting hundreds of workers throughout the province.Footnote 48

Employment dropped in accommodation and food services as well. The entire decline was in full–time work.Footnote 49 Part–time employment rose with the majority of the gains in the Toronto area. In the summer of 2015, the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area hosted the Toronto 2015 Pan Am / Parapan Am Games.Footnote 50 This was the largest multisport event in Canadian history.Footnote 51 The lower Canadian dollar and improving economic conditions in the United States could lead to greater tourism activity going forward, which may help local employers in this industry.

Ongoing shifts in the media industry continue to weigh down on employment in the information, culture and recreation industry. Layoff notices came from all three of Canada's largest multimedia providers'Bell Media,Footnote 52 TELUS Communications Company,Footnote 53 and Rogers Media Inc.Footnote 54 There were also ongoing cuts to local newspapers and publications because of the move to more digital content.Footnote 55, Footnote 56

Employment by industry

Annual labour force statistics, by industry, for Ontario
Employment ('000)
Year 2014 to 2015 2013 to 2014
2015 2014 2013 Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 6,923.2 6,877.9 6,823.4 45.3 0.7 54.5 0.8
Goods-producing sector 1,401.4 1,382.0 1,397.5 19.4 1.4 –15.5 –1.1
Agriculture 76.9 81.8 83.8 –4.9 –6.0 –2.0 –2.4
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 43.3 33.2 35.9 10.1 30.4 –2.7 –7.5
Utilities 49.4 51.1 51.8 –1.7 –3.3 –0.7 –1.4
Construction 487.3 467.3 459.1 20.0 4.3 8.2 1.8
Manufacturing 744.6 748.6 767.0 –4.0 –0.5 –18.4 –2.4
Services-producing sector 5,521.7 5,495.9 5,425.9 25.8 0.5 70.0 1.3
Trade 1,042.3 1,047.0 1,019.0 –4.7 –0.4 28.0 2.7
Transportation and warehousing 321.3 329.0 336.3 –7.7 –2.3 –7.3 –2.2
Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 543.5 512.1 510.3 31.4 6.1 1.8 0.4
Professional, scientific and technical services 579.6 559.9 542.7 19.7 3.5 17.2 3.2
Business, building and other support services 333.4 334.7 327.7 –1.3 –0.4 7.0 2.1
Educational services 514.9 494.6 483.3 20.3 4.1 11.3 2.3
Health care and social assistance 812.5 798.2 790.8 14.3 1.8 7.4 0.9
Information, culture and recreation 309.5 316.5 311.5 –7.0 –2.2 5.0 1.6
Accommodation and food services 444.3 450.3 440.6 –6.0 –1.3 9.7 2.2
Other services 276.3 286.8 291.9 -10.5 -3.7 -5.1 -1.7
Public administration 344.0 366.8 371.6 –22.8 –6.2 –4.8 –1.3

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey — CANSIM Table 282–0008

Regional analysis

Employment growth for 2015 was strongest in Toronto

After stagnating in 2014, employment in the Toronto economic region regained its momentum from previous years, rising by 79,300 in 2015. Gains in full–time employment more than offset losses in part–time, driving the region's unemployment rate lower; from 8.0% to 7.1%.

Gains in the professional, scientific and technical services sector continued to cement Toronto's reputation as a research and technology powerhouse.Footnote 57 Baycrest Health Sciences' brain aging research centre opened in 2015, helped by $65.5M in government funding.Footnote 58 Meanwhile, The Bank of Nova Scotia is expanding its technological services to clients and will open a ‘digital factory’ in 2016, employing 350 people.Footnote 59This was particularly encouraging in light of announced layoffs in the finance sector in 2015 at British HSBC Holdings PLCFootnote 60 and at some of the big Canadian banks.Footnote 61, Footnote 62

Good news also came from the transportation and warehousing industry in Toronto. Despite challenges at the national rail carriers, expansions in warehousing at SCI Logistics Ltd.Footnote 63 and IKEA CanadaFootnote 64 helped grow industry employment. The region's transit and ground transportation sub–industry looks primed for growth over the next few years as large infrastructure construction projects were announced in 2015. These included $1.2B for the Highway 407 East extension, an $859.2M contract to build and operate the GO Transit East Rail Maintenance Facility in Whitby,Footnote 65 and the start in 2016 of the $333.2M next phase of the York Viva Bus Rapid Transit rapidway.Footnote 66

Residential construction permits surged to match the non–residential segment over the year.Footnote 67 The Daniels Corporation plans to build a $700M development for Toronto's waterfront, which will include condos, offices and retail spaceFootnote 68 and further uptown the Gupta Group / Easton's Group of Hotels announced it would begin construction on a $300M mixed–use development at the corner of Yonge St. and York Mills Rd. in 2016.Footnote 69

Infrastructure spending across the province will also benefit the Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula economic region as the City of Hamilton is set to receive up to $1B from the Government of Ontario to start construction on a cross–town Light Rail Transit line in 2019.Footnote 70 Employment grew in the economic region in 2015 by 12,700 over last year. All gains were in full–time, and the unemployment rate decreased from 6.5% to 6.0%.

The region's manufacturing sector saw mixed news over 2015 but 2016 holds some promise of recovery. PowerBlades Inc. closed its turbine blade plant in Welland, affecting 136 employees, after opening only two years ago,Footnote 71 and National Steel Car Limited in Hamilton temporarily laid off 500 workers in December until early 2016 due to slumping demand for rail tanker cars.Footnote 72 Later in 2016, PaperWorks Industries Inc. will be relocating its Hamilton folding carton plant by July. While the move will lead to the loss of 180 jobs, the company hopes to rehire more than half of these in Kitchener where it will be consolidating its production facilities.Footnote 73 On a brighter note, St. Catharines saw an additional 200 jobs in pre–cast concrete manufacturing through early 2016, producing parts for Niagara Region Wind Corp.'s wind–turbine towers.Footnote 74 Also supporting the utilities industry, Fibracast Inc. is expected to employ about 100 once it completes its new water treatment membrane factory in Stoney Creek.Footnote 75 Another 50 high–tech manufacturing jobs will be added by Mitsui High–tec Inc.'s new precision machine tools facility in Brantford, set to break ground in the first quarter of 2016.Footnote 76

Employment gains were also recorded in the Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie and London economic regions in 2015. While Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie's employment growth was moderate, the economic region continues to have a robust labour market. Its participation rate declined slightly in 2015 but remains the highest in the province at 69.7% and the region's unemployment rate is the lowest in Ontario, at 5.4%.

Employment losses centred in eastern and northern Ontario in 2015

Even though employment grew in Ontario, the majority of economic regions experienced losses in 2015. There was a clear divide in employment growth in the province. Economic regions in central Ontario were at the forefront of job growth while areas in eastern and northern Ontario trailed behind.

The largest drop in employment was in the Muskoka–Kawarthas economic region. The regional unemployment rate climbed as the number of unemployed residents rose in 2015. The area continues to see lower participation and employment rates likely because of its older population and large number of retirees. There were several layoffs in the public sector including job cuts at the Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board,Footnote 77 South Muskoka Memorial Hospital,Footnote 78 Municipality of Port Hope,Footnote 79 and Nipissing University's Muskoka Campus.Footnote 80 Some local manufacturers cut back as well. Viceroy Homes Limited suspended work at its Port Hope plantFootnote 81 and ESCO Corporation issued layoff notices in its mining division because of less demand for industry–related goods.Footnote 82 One area that is seeing growth though is the local aerospace industry. The Peterborough Airport has become one of the busiest small airports in the country. Construction started on a two–year expansion project of the Airport at a cost of $4.1M in September 2015.Footnote 83 Sciens Industries Inc. landed a multimillion–dollar contract to supply parts for the Boeing 777.Footnote 84 And The Loomex Group opened its new site at the Airport to support local operations.Footnote 85

Employment in the easternmost economic regions of Ottawa and Kingston–Pembroke fell in 2015 as well. Both regions saw some losses in local manufacturing. Eastway911 Emergency Vehicles Ltd. shut its plant in Carleton Place near Ottawa in November 2015.Footnote 86 G.H. Metals closed its manufacturing facility in Smiths Falls in October 2015.Footnote 87 And Vétoquinol Canada Inc. will close its plant in Belleville over the next three years.Footnote 88 However, there was some bright news for both regions as large–scale utility projects got underway in 2015. Hydro Ottawa started construction on a new 29–megawatt hydroelectric generating station near Chaudière Falls.Footnote 89 The station will be operational in 2017 and is valued at $150M. In the Kingston–Pembroke region, TransCanada PipeLines Limited started construction on the Napanee Generating Station. The project will create hundreds of construction jobs over the next few years and will cost about $1.2B.Footnote 90

Employment in the Northeast and Northwest economic regions declined in 2015. Northern Ontario felt the pinch of lower commodity prices causing a slowdown in the mining industry. First Nickel Inc. suspended operations at its Lockerby Mine in Sudbury.Footnote 91 KGHM International Ltd. shut its McCreedy West Mine in Sudbury because of weaker copper and nickel prices.Footnote 92 IAMGOLD Corporation suspended its Côté Gold Project south of Timmins.Footnote 93 And North American Palladium Ltd. cut staff at its Lac Des Iles mine north of Thunder Bay as the miner copes with lower metal prices.Footnote 94 The drop in commodity prices has also affected companies that serve the mining industry. Boart Longyear Canada issued temporary layoffs at its plant in North Bay in early 2015Footnote 95 and Metso Minerals Canada Inc. cut staff at its facility in North Bay because of less demand for mining goods.Footnote 96 An excess supply of metals and minerals, and less demand for these goods from the world's largest buyer China, may keep prices weak in the near term. Elsewhere in the resources sector, there were a few promising developments in wood manufacturing because of stronger growth in the American housing market. Resolute Forest Products opened a new sawmill in Sapawe near Atikokan in April 2015 creating about 90 jobs.Footnote 97 Prendiville Industries Ltd. was actively recruiting labourers and tradespersons for the restart of its Kenora Forest Products sawmill.Footnote 98 And Rentech, Inc. should reach full production at its wood pellet manufacturing facility in Wawa by mid–2016.Footnote 99

In southwestern Ontario, employment fell in the Windsor–Sarnia and Stratford–Bruce Peninsula economic regions. A few long–standing manufacturers announced plans to close operations in both regions in 2015. Monarch Mattress Mfg. Co. closed its facility in Windsor after more than 65 yearsFootnote 100 and Crown Metal Packaging Canada LP closed its plant in Chatham in October 2015.Footnote 101 While Windsor–Sarnia continues to have the highest unemployment rate in the province, labour market conditions may start to improve going forward. Several producers of automotive parts and metal goods announced plans to expand operations and hire new workers to keep up with growing demand. In the Stratford–Bruce region, the Town of St. Marys received some disappointing news in 2015. The Kraft Heinz Company will close its facility in St. Marys over the next two years affecting 214 workers.Footnote 102 The plant is one of the largest employers in the community and has been in operation since the 1950s. But a new local manufacturer may help fill some of this void. Green Arc Tire Manufacturing Inc. is planning to open a new plant in St. Marys, creating 340 jobs.Footnote 103

Annual labour force statistics, by economic region, for Ontario
Employment ('000)
Seasonally unadjusted data
Year 2014 to 2015 2013 to 2014
2015 2014 2013 Number % Number %
Ontario 6,923.2 6,877.9 6,823.4 45.3 0.7 54.5 0.8
Economic regions
Ottawa 688.2 697.8 684.5 –9.6 –1.4 13.3 1.9
Kingston–Pembroke 201.0 210.1 213.9 –9.1 –4.3 –3.8 –1.8
Muskoka–Kawarthas 167.8 186.3 168.5 –18.5 –9.9 17.8 10.6
Toronto 3,320.4 3,241.1 3,240.2 79.3 2.4 0.9 0.0
Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie 710.6 704.5 693.5 6.1 0.9 11.0 1.6
Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula 719.1 706.4 697.5 12.7 1.8 8.9 1.3
London 330.4 324.8 323.7 5.6 1.7 1.1 0.3
Windsor–Sarnia 295.1 299.1 295.1 –4.0 –1.3 4.0 1.4
Stratford–Bruce Peninsula 145.0 151.1 150.6 –6.1 –4.0 0.5 0.3
Northeast 248.1 256.8 253.7 –8.7 –3.4 3.1 1.2
Northwest 97.4 99.8 102.2 –2.4 –2.4 –2.4 –2.3

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey — CANSIM Table 282–0123

Annual employment growth, by economic region, for Ontario 2013 — 2014
Annual employment growth, by economic region, for Ontario 2013 - 2014. The data table for this graph is located below
Show data table: Annual employment growth, by economic region, for Ontario 2014 — 2015
Annual employment growth, by economic region, for Ontario 2014 — 2015
Economic Region 2014–2015
Ontario 0.7%
Northwest –2.4%
Kingston–Pembroke –4.3%
Toronto 2.4%
Stratford–Bruce Peninsula –4.0%
London 1.7%
Northeast –3.4%
Hamilton–Niagara Peninsula 1.8%
Windsor–Sarnia –1.3%
Kitchener–Waterloo–Barrie 0.9%
Ottawa 1.9%
Muskoka–Kawarthas –9.9%


In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Directorate, Service Canada, Ontario

For further information, please contact the LMI team.

For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.


Footnote 1

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (January 8, 2016). The Employment Situation — December 2015. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 1

Footnote 2

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (January 8, 2016). The Employment Situation — December 2015. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 2

Footnote 3

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 027–0001 — Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, under construction and completions in centres 10,000 and over, Canada, provinces, selected census metropolitan areas, monthly (units). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 3

Footnote 4

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 026–0006 — Building permits, by type of structure and area, seasonally adjusted, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 4

Footnote 5

Brennan, R. (April 7, 2015). $1.2 billion contract awarded to extend Highway 407 in Durham. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–billion–contract–awarded–to–extend–407–in–durham.html

Return to footnote 5

Footnote 6

CNW Staff. (August 27, 2015). Peter Sutherland Sr. Generating Station Project Underway. Canada Newswire. Retrieved from:–releases/peter–sutherland–sr–generating–station–project–underway–523117421.html

Return to footnote 6

Footnote 7

Daily Commercial News. (July 10, 2015). $285 million planned for Trent–Severn Waterway. Daily Commercial News. Retrieved from:–million–planned–for–Trent–Severn–Waterway–1008822W/

Return to footnote 7

Footnote 8

Carleton University. (December 14, 2015). Carleton Announces New Health Sciences Building. Carleton University. Retrieved from:–announces–new–health–sciences–building/

Return to footnote 8

Footnote 9

Bryden, J. (January 14, 2016). Trudeau's government set to speed up, double down infrastructure. CBC News. Retrieved from:–acceleration–sohi–1.3403450

Return to footnote 9

Footnote 10

Benzie, R. (April 23, 2015). Province unveils $130B infrastructure push in Ontario budget. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–unveils–130b–infrastructure–push–in–ontario–budget.html

Return to footnote 10

Footnote 11

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 228–0060 — Merchandise imports and domestic exports, customs-based, by North American Product Classification System (NAPCS), Canada, provinces and territories, monthly (dollars). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 11

Footnote 12

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 304–0015 — Manufacturing sales, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and province, monthly (dollars). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 12

Footnote 13

Keenan, G. (January 5, 2016). Canada and U.S. both set records for auto sales in 2015. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/canada–and–us–both–set–records–for–auto–sales–in–2015/article28027802/

Return to footnote 13

Footnote 14

Macaluso, G. (December 8, 2015). Windsor Assembly gears up for new minivan: ‘You're going to love it’. Windsor Star. Retrieved from:–business/windsor–assembly–plant–in–final–preparations–for–launch–of–next–generation–minivan

Return to footnote 14

Footnote 15

Keenan, G. (February 26, 2015). Ford adds 400 jobs at Oakville plant in global push of Edge model. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/ford–adds–400–jobs–at–oakville–plant–to–push–global–sales–of–edge/article23206956/

Return to footnote 15

Footnote 16

Chase, S. and Keenan, G. (February 12, 2015). General Motors to invest $560–million in Ontario's Ingersoll plant. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/gm–to–invest–450–million–in–ontarios–ingersoll–plant/article22933182/

Return to footnote 16

Footnote 17

The Canadian Press. (August 19, 2015). GM Canada to invest $12M to up Chevrolet Equinox production. CTV News. Retrieved from:–canada–to–invest–12m–to–up–chevrolet–equinox–production–1.2524311

Return to footnote 17

Footnote 18

Simone, R. (July 31, 2015). Toyota's $421–million investment bodes well for future of local plants. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from:–story/5769256–toyota–s–421–million–investment–bodes–well–for–future–of–local–plants/

Return to footnote 18

Footnote 19

Keenan, G. (November 10, 2015). Toyota's Cambridge plant gets $500–million to boost RAV4 production. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/toyota–to–build–compact–suv–at–cambridge–plant–replaces–lost–corolla–production/article27186145/

Return to footnote 19

Footnote 20

Kennedy, D. (October 21, 2015). Honda launches 2016 Civic into mass production at Alliston, Ont. plant. Canadian Manufacturing. Retrieved from:–launches–2016–civic–into–mass–production–at–alliston–ont–plant–156299/

Return to footnote 20

Footnote 21

DeBono, N. (December 16, 2015). London area automotive industry running in high gear despite Canada's slumping energy sector. London Free Press. Retrieved from:–area–automotive–industry–running–in–high–gear–despite–canadas–slumping–energy–sector

Return to footnote 21

Footnote 22

Debono, N. (November 12, 2015). Low buck helps keep economy motorin'. London Free Press. Retrieved from:–buck–helps–keep–economy–motorin

Return to footnote 22

Footnote 23

Tire Review Staff. (November 20, 2015). ContiTech Closing Bowmanville Plant in 2016. Tire Review. Retrieved from:–closing–bowmanville–plant–in–2016/

Return to footnote 23

Footnote 24

Armstrong, K. (October 14, 2015). Additional layoffs may come in November, says union. SooToday. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 24

Footnote 25

Keenan, G. (November 13, 2015). Industry crisis testing the mettle of steel makers. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/industry–news/energy–and–resources/industry–crisis–testing–the–mettle–of–steel–makers/article27258381/

Return to footnote 25

Footnote 26

Benzie, R. (December 3, 2015). Bruce Power to invest $13 billion to refurbish nuclear station on Lake Huron. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–power–to–invest–13b–in–nuclear–station–creating–23000–jobs.html

Return to footnote 26

Footnote 27

Bruce Power Staff. (December 4, 2015). Bruce Power signs $35 million agreement with Laker Energy Products. Bruce Power. Retrieved from:–power–signs–35–million–agreement–with–laker–energy–products/

Return to footnote 27

Footnote 28

Davis, B. (November 17, 2015). Cambridge firms playing key role in Darlington nuclear refurbishment. Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved from:–story/6122538–cambridge–firms–playing–key–role–in–darlington–nuclear–refurbishment/

Return to footnote 28

Footnote 29

Marr, G. (December 15, 2015). CREA worries Ottawa's new mortgage rules will dampen home sales in 2016. The National Post. Retrieved from:–finance/mortgages–real–estate/even–realtors–caught–off–guard–by–strength–of–canadian–housing–numbers–this–year

Return to footnote 29

Footnote 30

Freeman, S. (October 23, 2015). More bank job cuts to follow Scotiabank, TD: analyst. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–bank–job–cuts–to–follow–scotiabank–td–analyst.html

Return to footnote 30

Footnote 31

Posadzki, A. (October 16, 2015). Scotiabank launches ‘digital factory’ that will house 350 tech jobs. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 31

Footnote 32

Davis, B. (October 1, 2015). TD Bank technology centre to employ 120 in Waterloo. Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved from:–story/5939945–td–bank–technology–centre–to–employ–120–in–waterloo/

Return to footnote 32

Footnote 33

O'Flanagan, R. (February 19, 2015). Global food safety building facility in Guelph. Guelph Mercury. Retrieved from:–story/5347312–global–food–safety–firm–building–facility–in–guelph/

Return to footnote 33

Footnote 34

Saxon, T. (May 28, 2015). Elora–area dairy research centre draws a crowd. Guelph Mercury. Retrieved from:–story/5650599–elora–area–dairy–research–centre–draws–a–crowd/

Return to footnote 34

Footnote 35

Canadian Nuclear Association Staff. CNL Invests in Hydrogen to Power the Future. Canadian Nuclear Association. Retrieved from:–invests–hydrogen–power–future/

Return to footnote 35

Footnote 36

Craig, A. (September 1, 2015). Queen's University opens unique research facility. Queen's Gazette. Retrieved from:–s–university–opens–unique–research–facility

Return to footnote 36

Footnote 37

Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario Staff. (May 19, 2015). Harper Government Announces Funding to Establish the Open Data Exchange. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:–

Return to footnote 37

Footnote 38

Friend, D. (October 1, 2015). Shopify Inc to expand Waterloo presence with bigger office, hire more staff. The National Post. Retrieved from:–tech–desk/shopify–inc–to–expand–waterloo–presence–with–bigger–office–hire–more–staff

Return to footnote 38

Footnote 39

Bickis, I. (July 21, 2015). CN Rail, CP Rail cut jobs as shipping volumes fall. Huffington Post. Retrieved from:–two–largest–rail_n_7839752.html

Return to footnote 39

Footnote 40

Arnold, S. (December 4, 2015). National Steel Car to lay off 500 before Christmas. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from:–story/6157921–national–steel–car–to–lay–off–500–before–christmas/

Return to footnote 40

Footnote 41

Werner, K. (July 30, 2015). Hamilton International Airport's $12–million facility launches economic benefits. Hamilton Community News. Retrieved from:–story/5768485–hamilton–international–airport–s–12–million–facility–launches–economic–benefits/

Return to footnote 41

Footnote 42

Ross, I. (July 31, 2015). Terminal expansion finally coming for Sioux Lookout Airport. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from:–News/construction/2015/07/Terminal–expansion–finally–coming–for–Sioux–Lookout–Airport.aspx

Return to footnote 42

Footnote 43

Keenan, G. (October 8, 2015). Southern Ontario airport capacity to be challenged by surging passenger traffic: report. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/southern–ontario–airports–must–integrate–to–meet–demand–report/article26710785/

Return to footnote 43

Footnote 44

Statistics Canada. (January 14, 2016). CANSIM Table 080-0020 - Retail trade, sales by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), monthly (dollars). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 44

Footnote 45

CTV News Staff. (April 12, 2015). Target Canada closing, ending 2–year foray. CTV News. Retrieved from:–canada–closing–ending–2–year–foray–1.2323222

Return to footnote 45

Footnote 46

Flavelle, D. (April 6, 2015). Future Shop stores re–open under Best Buy name. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–shop–stores–re–open–under–best–buy–name.html

Return to footnote 46

Footnote 47

Strauss, M. (June 9, 2015). Blacks Photography falls victim to digital industry. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/blacks–photography–to–close–all–stores/article24873218/

Return to footnote 47

Footnote 48

Canadian Press Staff. (January 14, 2015) Mexx Canada liquidating stores before closing doors the end of February. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–canada–liquidating–stores–before–closing–doors–the–end–of–february.html

Return to footnote 48

Footnote 49

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 282–0008 — Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), sex and age group, annual. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 49

Footnote 50

Toronto 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games Staff (August 2015). About the Pan Am Games. Toronto 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games. Retrieved from:–us/pan–am–games

Return to footnote 50

Footnote 51

Province of Ontario Staff (August 2015). About the Pan Am/Parapan Am Games. Province of Ontario. Retrieved from:–pan–amparapan–am–games

Return to footnote 51

Footnote 52

Bateman, D. (November 18, 2015). Bell Media mass job cut affects TV personalities. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–media–mass–job–cut–affects–tv–personalities.html

Return to footnote 52

Footnote 53

Friend, D. (November 5, 2015). Telus cuts 1,500 jobs but boosts dividend 5%. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–giant–telus–cuts–1500–jobs.html

Return to footnote 53

Footnote 54

Friend, D. (May 7, 2015). Rogers Media to Cut 110 Jobs, Mostly At Omni TV. Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved from:–media–cutting–abou_n_7234880.html

Return to footnote 54

Footnote 55

Bay Today Staff. (September 25, 2015). Local newspaper shutting down. Bay Today. Retrieved from:–news/local–newspaper–shutting–down–66094

Return to footnote 55

Footnote 56

Bradshaw, J. (June 22, 2015). New round of buyouts coming for Postmedia Network. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/more–job–cuts–could–be–coming–for–postmedia–network/article25066108/

Return to footnote 56

Footnote 57

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 282–0125 — Labour force survey estimates (LFS), employment by economic region based on 2011 Census boundaries and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Annual. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 57

Footnote 58

Canadian Press. (May 22, 2015). Brain aging research centre to open in Toronto this fall. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–aging–research–centre–to–open–in–toronto–this–fall/article24572128/

Return to footnote 58

Footnote 59

Posadzki, A. (October 16, 2015). Scotiabank launches ‘digital factory’ that will house 350 tech jobs. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–on–business/scotiabank–launches–digital–factory–that–will–house–350–tech–jobs/article26843317/

Return to footnote 59

Footnote 60

Pylas, P. (July 9, 2015). HSBC Layoffs to Hit 25,000 as Bank Aims to Save $5 Billion. Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved from:–cutting–staff–by–up–_n_7541420.html

Return to footnote 60

Footnote 61

Huffington Post Staff. (October 19, 2015). TD Bank Lays Off Canada, U.S. Staff After Review: Sources. Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved from:–bank–layoffs–job–cuts_n_8330190.html

Return to footnote 61

Footnote 62

Canadian Press. (January 30, 2015). CIBC slashes 500 jobs in two weeks as banks face consumer borrowing lull. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from:–story/5295058–cibc–slashes–500–jobs–in–two–weeks–as–banks–face–consumer–borrowing–lull/

Return to footnote 62

Footnote 63

CNW Staff. (May 12, 2015). SCI Logistics opens a new healthcare–dedicated facility in Greater Toronto Area. Canada Newswire. Retrieved from:–releases/sci–logistics–opens–a–new–healthcare–dedicated–facility–in–greater–toronto–area–517709081.html

Return to footnote 63

Footnote 64

Chin, J. (May 21, 2015). IKEA to create 150 new jobs in Mississauga. Mississauga News. Retrieved from:–story/5638020–ikea–to–create–150–new–jobs–in–mississauga/

Return to footnote 64

Footnote 65

Kalinowski, T. (March 29, 2015). Metrolinx to build 22–train facility in Whitby. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–to–build–22–train–facility–in–whitby.html

Return to footnote 65

Footnote 66

Ministry of Transportation. (September 28, 2015). Ontario Making Progress on York Viva Bus Rapid Transit. Ontario Newsroom. Retrieved from:–making–progress–on–york–viva–bus–rapid–transit.html

Return to footnote 66

Footnote 67

Statistics Canada. (January 11, 2016). CANSIM Table 026–0006 — Building permits, by type of structure and area, seasonally adjusted, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 67

Footnote 68

Shum, D. (March 31, 2015). Daniels Corporation unveils waterfront mixed–use condo project. Global News. Retrieved from:–corporation–to–unveil–waterfront–mixed–use–condo–project/

Return to footnote 68

Footnote 69

Pigg, S. (January 14, 2015). York Mills TTC parking lot slated for hotel, office complex. Toronto Star. Retrieved from:–mills–ttc–parking–lot–slated–for–hotel–office–complex.html

Return to footnote 69

Footnote 70

Morrow, A. (May 26, 2015). Ontario pledges up to $1–billion for Hamilton LRT, work to start in 2019. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from:–lrt–construction–to–begin–in–2019/article24613385/

Return to footnote 70

Footnote 71

Ikeman, F. (November 16, 2015). PowerBlades closes, 136 jobs lost. Welland Tribune. Retrieved from:–closes–136–jobs–lost

Return to footnote 71

Footnote 72

Arnold, S. (December 4, 2015). National Steel Car to lay off 500 before Christmas. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from:–story/6157921–national–steel–car–to–lay–off–500–before–christmas/

Return to footnote 72

Footnote 73

Arnold, S. (October 23, 2015). 180 jobs lost as Hamilton box factory closes its doors. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from:–story/5974053–180–jobs–lost–as–hamilton–box–factory–closes–its–doors/

Return to footnote 73

Footnote 74

Fraser, D. (August 4, 2015). Turbine plant to create up to 200 positions. St. Catharines Standard. Retrieved from:–turbine–parts–plant–to–create–up–to–200–jobs

Return to footnote 74

Footnote 75

Macleod, M. (July 17, 2015). New water facility will bring 100 jobs to Hamilton. Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from:–story/5738935–new–water–facility–will–bring–100–jobs–to–hamilton/

Return to footnote 75

Footnote 76

Ruby, M. (December 12, 2015). Brantford to be home to Mitsui High–tech, a parts manufacturer for eco-friendly vehicles. Brantford Expositor. Retrieved from:–to–be–home–to–mitsui–high–tech–a–parts–manufacturer–for–eco–friendly–vehicles–2

Return to footnote 76

Footnote 77

Gordon, K. (April 7, 2015). Public board lays off 118 secondary school teachers. Peterbourough Examiner. Retrieved from:–board–lays–off–118–secondary–school–teachers

Return to footnote 77

Footnote 78

Steel, P. (April 16, 2015). Beds closing, staff cuts at Bracebridge hospital. Bracebridge Examiner. Retrieved from:–story/5561594–beds–closing–staff–cuts–at–bracebridge–hospital/

Return to footnote 78

Footnote 79

McEwen, T. (April 23, 2015). Port Hope hands out pink slips at Town Hall with mass dismissals. Northumberland News. Retrieved from:–story/5573856–port–hope–hands–out–pink–slips–at–town–hall–with–mass–dismissals/

Return to footnote 79

Footnote 80

Hartill, M. (June 5, 2015). Muskoka Nipissing Campus closing its doors. Bracebridge Examiner. Retrieved from:–story/5663543–muskoka–nipissing–campus–closing–its–doors/

Return to footnote 80

Footnote 81

Torstar News Staff. (June 18, 2015). Viceroy Homes in Port Hope aims to avoid bankruptcy, owes more than $24.7 million. Northumberland News. Retrieved from:–story/5684545–viceroy–homes–in–port–hope–aims–to–avoid–bankruptcy–owes–more–than–24–7–million/

Return to footnote 81

Footnote 82

Longwell, K. (August 7, 2015). Port Hope Esco eliminates 33 jobs. Northumberland News. Retrieved from:–story/5788883–port–hope–esco–eliminates–33–jobs/

Return to footnote 82

Footnote 83

Nyznik, J. (September 4, 2015). $4.1M expansion for Peterborough Airport to add new apron, taxiway by end of 2016. Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from:–expansion–for–peterborough–airport–to–add–new–apron–taxiway–by–end–of–2016

Return to footnote 83

Footnote 84

Metroland Media Staff. (April 15, 2015). Sciens Industries awarded contract for the Boeing 777 landing gear components. Peterborough This Week. Retrieved from:–story/5559074–sciens–industries–awarded–contract–for–the–boeing–777–landing–gear–components/

Return to footnote 84

Footnote 85

Bain, J. (September 10, 2015). Loomex Group, operator of the Peterborough Airport, moves into new office/hangar facility at airport. Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved from:–group–operator–of–the–peterborough–airport–moves–into–new–officehangar–facility–at–airport

Return to footnote 85

Footnote 86

CBC News Staff. (November 11, 2015). Eastway911 shuts down suddenly, leaving employees ‘blindsided’. CBC News. Retrieved from:–place–company–shuts–down–suddenly–1.3314864

Return to footnote 86

Footnote 87

Smiths Falls Record News Staff. (October 27, 2015). GH Metals closes doors in Smiths Falls. Inside Ottawa Valley. Retrieved from:–story/6047386–gh–metals–closes–doors–in–smiths–falls/

Return to footnote 87

Footnote 88

Hendry, L. (April 17, 2015). More than 40 jobs lost in city. The Belleville Intelligencer. Retrieved from:–than–40–jobs–lost–in–city

Return to footnote 88

Footnote 89

Pearson, M. (November 16, 2015). Hydro Ottawa unveils plans for new Chaudière Falls facility. The Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from:–news/hydro–ottawa–unveils–plans–for–new–chaudiere–falls–facility

Return to footnote 89

Footnote 90

O'Hagan, D. (October 1, 2015). New Napanee generating plant brings local jobs. QNet News. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 90

Footnote 91

Topf, A. (August 23, 2015). First Nickel locks gates to Sudbury mine. Retrieved from:–nickel–locks–gates–to–sudbury–mine/

Return to footnote 91

Footnote 92

Reuters Staff. (September 21, 2015). Miner KGHM International to cut 48 jobs at Sudbury, Ontario. Reuters. Retrieved from:–polska–redundancies–idUSL4N11R4KN20150921

Return to footnote 92

Footnote 93

Gillis, L. (August 22, 2015). IAMGOLD confirms shutdown in Gogama. The Timmins Press Retrieved from:–confirms–shutdown–in–gogama

Return to footnote 93

Footnote 94

Walters, J. (September 30, 2015). North American Palladium lays off 44 employees at Lac Des Iles mine. CBC News. Retrieved from:–bay/north–american–palladium–lays–off–44–employees–at–lac–des–iles–mine–1.3251046

Return to footnote 94

Footnote 95

Hamilton-McCharles, J. (February 27, 2015). Layoffs at Boart Longyear. North Bay Nugget. Retrieved from:–at–boart–longyear

Return to footnote 95

Footnote 96

Young, G. (August 28, 2015). Metso laying off 25 due to mining downturn. North Bay Nugget. Retrieved from:–laying–off–25–due–mining–downturn

Return to footnote 96

Footnote 97

IHB News Staff. (May 4, 2015). Resolute starts production at Atikokan sawmill. IHB News. Retrieved from:

Return to footnote 97

Footnote 98

Northern Ontario Business Staff. (July 30, 2015). Kenora Forest Products is restarting this fall after a seven-year shutdown. Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved from:–News/forestry/2015/08/Kenora–Forest–Products–is–restarting–this–fall–after–a–seven–year–shutdown.aspx

Return to footnote 98

Footnote 99

Voegele, E. (November 25, 2015). Rentech restarts Wawa plant, achieves record week at Atikokan. Biomass Magazine. Retrieved from:–restarts–wawa–plant–achieves–record–week–at–atikokan

Return to footnote 99

Footnote 100

Nixon, G. (August 22, 2015). Monarch Mattress era coming to an end in Windsor. CBC News Windsor. Retrieved from:–mattress–era–coming–to–an–end–in–windsor–1.3197713

Return to footnote 100

Footnote 101

Gough, V. (August 19, 2015). Crown Metal Packaging shifting operations. Chatham Daily News. Retrieved from:–metal–packaging–shifting–operations

Return to footnote 101

Footnote 102

CBC News Staff. (November 4, 2015). Kraft Heinz plant in St. Marys, Ont., set for closure. CBC News Windsor. Retrieved from:–heinz–plant–in–st–marys–ont–set–for–closure–1.3304276

Return to footnote 102

Footnote 103

Cudworth, L. (July 14, 2015). Recycled tire manufacturer gets Ministry of Environment permits. Woodstock Sentinel Review. Retrieved from:–tire–manufacturer–gets–ministry–of–environment–permits

Return to footnote 103

Date modified: