Labour Market Bulletin - Manitoba: June 2022

This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Manitoba, including the regions of Winnipeg, Northern Manitoba and Southern Manitoba.

Overview

Employment growth in Manitoba stalled in the second quarter of 2022. After steady progress since late 2020, the province dropped 200 jobs compared with last quarter. Gains in part-time employment (+700) were more than offset by losses in full-time employment (-900). Public sector employment increased by 7,930 (+4.6%) while private sector employment dipped by 7,670 (-1.8%) and self-employment fell by 430 (-0.6%). [1]

On an annual basis, however, employment has improved. In the second quarter of 2021, growth in some industries was limited by COVID-19 related public health measures. The province has since added 16,500 jobs (+2.5%), about a third of them full-time positions.

Manitoba Quarterly Labour Force Statistics
Seasonally adjusted data 2nd Quarter 2022 1st Quarter 2022 2nd Quarter 2021 Quarterly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Population 15 + ('000) 1,061.8 1,057.2 1,050.6 4.6 0.4 11.2 1.1
Labour Force ('000) 699.7 703.9 701.3 -4.2 -0.6 -1.6 -0.2
Employment ('000) 668.2 668.4 651.7 -0.2 0.0 16.5 2.5
    Full-Time ('000) 535.7 536.6 530.3 -0.9 -0.2 5.4 1.0
    Part-Time ('000) 132.5 131.8 121.5 0.7 0.5 11.0 9.1
Unemployment ('000) 31.5 35.5 49.6 -4.0 -11.3 -18.1 -36.5
Unemployment Rate (%) 4.5 5.0 7.1 -0.5 - -2.6 -
Participation Rate (%) 65.9 66.6 66.8 -0.7 - -0.9 -
Employment Rate (%) 62.9 63.2 62.0 -0.3 - 0.9 -

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0287, formerly CANSIM 282-0087


When compared with February 2020, the last month before the first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Manitoba, employment also appears to be progressing. In the second quarter of 2022, there were 3,700 more jobs in Manitoba than pre-pandemic (+0.6%). However, the working-age population also grew by 15,270 in that time. The labour force, on the other hand, decreased by 1,400 people, meaning that fewer individuals overall are either working or actively seeking work.

In March 2022, the Government of Manitoba lifted all remaining public health orders, allowing businesses to operate at full capacity and without restrictions. Many businesses in the province continue to face challenges, with 56% burdened by debt incurred during the pandemic, and the same number reporting they have not yet returned to pre-pandemic revenues. [2] Rising inflation is also a concern; Manitoba posted the third-highest Consumer Price Index in the country in May, and a recent survey found that 57% of Manitobans are “struggling” or “uncomfortable” financially. [3] According to Statistics Canada, 45% of Canadians have delayed making a purchase in the past six months, and 47% purchased cheaper alternatives, brands, or items. [4]

Manitoba Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Manitoba quarterly employment and unemployment rate. The data table for this graph is located below

Seasonally adjusted data

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey Table 14-10-0287

Show data table: Manitoba Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Manitoba Quarterly Employment and Unemployment Rate
Unemployment Rate (%) Employment ('000)
2Q2016 6.1 632.4
3Q2016 6.4 656.5
4Q2016 6.1 630.8
1Q2017 5.7 636.0
2Q2017 5.3 639.8
3Q2017 5.2 645.0
4Q2017 5.4 644.8
1Q2018 6.1 641.9
2Q2018 6.3 648.7
3Q2018 5.7 650.2
4Q2018 5.9 654.3
1Q2019 5.5 657.1
2Q2019 5.2 654.6
3Q2019 5.4 654.9
4Q2019 5.4 655.8
1Q2020 5.7 654.6
2Q2020 10.6 592.4
3Q2020 8.0 639.5
4Q2020 7.8 637.9
1Q2021 7.3 643.6
2Q2021 7.1 651.7
3Q2021 5.8 656.5
4Q2021 5.3 661.3
1Q2022 5.0 668.4
2Q2022 4.5 668.2

Manitoba's unemployment rate dropped 0.5 percentage points to 4.5% in the second quarter of 2022, the second lowest among provinces and well below the national average of 5.1%. The unemployment rate for June in Manitoba was 3.8%, the lowest it has been since January 2008. The province's unemployment rate has been inching downward each month since March, but an increase in employment is not driving this trend. Rather, 4,200 people exited the labour force in Manitoba between Q1 and Q2-2022.

Manitoba Quarterly Employment Growth
Manitoba quarterly employment growth. The data table for this graph is located below

Seasonally adjusted data

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey Table 14-10-0287

Show data table: Manitoba Quarterly Employment Growth
Manitoba Quarterly Employment Growth
Manitoba Canada
2Q2016 0.6% 0.2%
3Q2016 -0.3% 0.2%
4Q2016 0.0% 0.6%
1Q2017 0.8% 0.7%
2Q2017 0.6% 0.4%
3Q2017 0.8% 0.5%
4Q2017 0.0% 0.7%
1Q2018 -0.4% 0.2%
2Q2018 1.1% 0.2%
3Q2018 0.2% 0.4%
4Q2018 0.6% 0.6%
1Q2019 0.4% 0.8%
2Q2019 -0.4% 0.7%
3Q2019 0.0% 0.2%
4Q2019 0.1% 0.1%
1Q2020 -0.2% -1.3%
2Q2020 -9.5% -11.3%
3Q2020 8.0% 8.3%
4Q2020 -0.3% 2.4%
1Q2021 0.9% 0.4%
2Q2021 1.3% 0.6%
3Q2021 0.7% 1.7%
4Q2021 0.7% 1.5%
1Q2022 1.1% 0.8%
2Q2022 0.0% 1.0%

There was an increase in the unemployment rate for young workers this quarter, up 0.6 percentage points to 9.4%. A decrease in the rate for young men (-0.7 p.p.) was more than counterbalanced by an increase in the rate for young women (+2.0 p.p.). On an annual basis, however, the rate is trending downward for both groups. Workers between the ages of 15 and 24 were heavily impacted by COVID-19 layoffs and job losses due to their strong representation in the retail trade and accommodation and food services industries.

Manitoba Quarterly Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age
Seasonally adjusted data 2nd Quarter 2022 (%) 1st Quarter 2022 (%) 2nd Quarter 2021 (%) Quarterly Variation
(% points)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Total 4.5 5.0 7.1 -0.5 -2.6
25 years and over 3.5 4.3 5.9 -0.8 -2.4
Men - 25 years and over 3.6 4.2 5.6 -0.6 -2.0
Women - 25 years and over 3.4 4.4 6.2 -1.0 -2.8
15 to 24 years 9.4 8.8 13.2 0.6 -3.8
Men - 15 to 24 years 10.5 11.2 13.4 -0.7 -2.9
Women - 15 to 24 years 8.3 6.3 13.1 2.0 -4.8

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0287, formerly CANSIM 282-0087


Employment by industry

Employment in Manitoba's goods-producing sector fell by 3,800 (-2.7%) on the quarter, and by 9,300 (-6.4%) year-over-year. The sector also remains well below pre-pandemic employment levels, down -8.7% from February 2020. The services-producing sector fared better, adding 3,600 jobs (+0.7%) since last quarter, and 25,800 (+5.1%) year-over-year. Employment was also up when compared with February 2020 (+3.3%), but the sector continues to face difficulty finding sufficient numbers of workers in many industries.

Manitoba Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Industry
Seasonally adjusted data ('000) 2nd Quarter 2022 1st Quarter 2022 2nd Quarter 2021 Quarterly Variation Yearly Variation
Number % Number %
Total employed, all industries 668.2 668.4 651.7 -0.2 0.0 16.5 2.5
Goods-producing sector 136.9 140.7 146.2 -3.8 -2.7 -9.3 -6.4
Agriculture 18.4 21.3 23.7 -2.9 -13.6 -5.3 -22.4
Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 4.4 3.3 3.7 1.1 33.3 0.7 18.9
Utilities 4.9 5.1 4.8 -0.2 -3.9 0.1 2.1
Construction 47.7 48.5 49.3 -0.8 -1.6 -1.6 -3.2
Manufacturing 61.5 62.5 64.7 -1.0 -1.6 -3.2 -4.9
Services-producing sector 531.3 527.7 505.5 3.6 0.7 25.8 5.1
Trade 94.9 99.2 96.7 -4.3 -4.3 -1.8 -1.9
Transportation and warehousing 40.5 41.6 40.1 -1.1 -2.6 0.4 1.0
Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 39.7 39.3 35.5 0.4 1.0 4.2 11.8
Professional, scientific and technical services 34.1 32.3 32.8 1.8 5.6 1.3 4.0
Business, building and other support services 21.1 22.7 21.5 -1.6 -7.0 -0.4 -1.9
Educational services 61.1 58.6 58.8 2.5 4.3 2.3 3.9
Health care and social assistance 104.8 104.3 105.8 0.5 0.5 -1.0 -0.9
Information, culture and recreation 23.7 25.1 19.3 -1.4 -5.6 4.4 22.8
Accommodation and food services 40.4 38.1 30.1 2.3 6.0 10.3 34.2
Other services 28.5 26.6 27.6 1.9 7.1 0.9 3.3
Public administration 42.6 39.8 37.2 2.8 7.0 5.4 14.5

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table T14-10-0355, formerly CANSIM 282-0088


Employment in the agriculture industry fell by 2,900 (-13.6%) this quarter, and was down 5,300 (-22.4%) compared to this time last year. In 2021, severe drought led to a decline of almost 30% in total crop production in Manitoba. [5] While growing conditions should be better this year, heavy precipitation late into the spring delayed seeding and some producers experienced losses due to flooding. [6] In addition, increasing prices for fertilizer, fuel, and feed are driving up production costs. [7] The Government of Canada recently announced it would be suspending interest on the first $250,000 of its Advance Payments Program loans, up from the previous $100,000. The program provides farmers with cash advances of up to $1 million for the purchase of inputs, based on the anticipated market value of their crops. [8]

Another challenge for the agriculture industry is a labour shortage that is expected to worsen in the coming years. According to Assiniboine Community College, one in five agricultural jobs is projected to go unfilled by 2029. [9] In response to this need, the college is aiming to scale up enrollment in its agriculture programs from 300 to 800 by 2024. Its planned expansion project, the Prairie Innovation Centre, recently received a $1 million donation that brought it more than three-quarters of the way to its goal of $15 million. [10]

Year-over-year, employment in resource extraction (forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas) increased by 18.9%. While Manitoba's mining sector is small, it is a significant economic driver in northern communities and a major employer of Indigenous workers, who in 2021 comprised 23% of those working in mining, quarrying and oil and gas extraction. [11] In an effort to strengthen the mineral sector in the province, the Government of Manitoba is providing $10 million over three years to the Manitoba Mineral Development Fund, administered by the Manitoba Chambers of Commerce. [12]

In June, Hudbay Minerals Inc. ended production at its 777 mine in Flin Flon. The company plans to decommission the mine and adjoining zinc plant by September 2022, transitioning employees to its operations in Snow Lake. [13] Also in Snow Lake, Foremost Lithium Resource and Technology recently expanded exploration activities to its Jean Lake Lithium Property, with two drilling teams now at work. [14] Meanwhile, Vale is conducting exploration work around Thompson with an eye to growing its mining operations there, responding to increasing demand for nickel used in the production of electric vehicle batteries. [15] In the southwestern region of the province, the Potash and Agri-Development Corporation of Manitoba has begun work on the province's first potash development, near Russell. PADCOM is partnering with Gambler First Nation on the project. [16]

Employment in Manitoba's construction industry declined on both a quarterly (-1.6%) and annual basis (-3.2%), and remains below pre-pandemic levels. There were 47,700 people working in construction in the province in the second quarter of 2022, compared with 49,100 in February 2020 just prior to the arrival of COVID-19 in Manitoba. Efforts are ongoing, however, to build up the workforce and bring new employees into the field. The Manitoba Institute of Trades and Technology has expanded its welding shop with $4.5 million in funding from the provincial government, adding 36 new welding stations for students at both the high school and post-secondary levels. [17] Later this year, United Association Local 254 will open a $15 million Piping Industry Technical College in Winnipeg, offering classes to train new plumbers, welders, and steamfitters. [18] In May, the federal government announced it would be spending $247 million on programs to help small and medium-sized businesses offer training in the skilled trades, creating 25,000 new apprenticeship positions across Canada. [19]

A number of upcoming projects could bolster the construction industry in Manitoba. CN Rail is investing $160 million in upgrades to its infrastructure in the province, [20] while the City of Winnipeg has launched a $20 million incentive program promoting new development projects. [21] The provincial government is providing $36 million toward the repair of the Miles Hart Bridge, which links Thompson to several northern communities and to the planned Alamos gold mine in Lynn Lake. [22]

Turning to the services-producing sector, the accommodation and food services industry posted a sizable year-over-year increase in employment (+34.2%), while also showing growth since last quarter (6.0%). The industry was one of the hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, with employment in Manitoba shrinking by 30% (-12,300) between the first and second quarter of 2020. While recovery is underway, there is still some ground to make up. A recent survey of hospitality and tourism providers found that only half of participating businesses had reached pre-pandemic revenue levels, and 88% of respondents were having difficulty recruiting and retaining staff. [23]

The Manitoba Hotel Association, with $250,000 in funding from the federal and provincial governments, has launched a campaign to promote employment in the hospitality industry. While hotel occupancy rates in the province remain below 2019 levels, they are on the upswing, from 50% earlier in the year to 77% at the end of June. Hoteliers now hope to keep up with increasing demand by attracting staff through a series of television and online ads. [24] Meanwhile, the Government of Canada is providing a total $10.8 million to 39 tourism initiatives across Manitoba to assist in the industry's COVID-19 recovery. Projects include new tourist attractions and experiences as well as upgrades to existing ones. [25]

As Manitoba enters its first summer without public health measures related to COVID-19, the information, culture and recreation industry is also showing growth when compared with 2021. Employment rose by 22.8% year-over-year even as it decreased by 5.6% since last quarter. A number of summer festivals are returning to the province for the first time since 2019, including the Winnipeg Fringe Festival, Folklorama, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Morris Stampede, and Dauphin's Countryfest. [26]

Employment in health care and social assistance is little changed on both a quarterly and annual basis, edging up 0.5% since last quarter and down 0.9% since this time last year. The industry continues to struggle with staff shortages worsened by the pandemic. Vacancies in nursing have increased each quarter for more than a year, with 1,400 positions unfilled this quarter compared to 920 in Q1-2021. [27] In recent months, the shortages have been acutely felt in emergency departments. At Winnipeg's Health Sciences Centre in June, ER wait times stretched as long as 24 hours and standard staffing of two dozen nurses dropped to 12 in some instances. [28] On one busy weekend, paramedics were asked to take emergency room shifts, and on another, nurses were recruited from the hospital's intensive care units. [29]

Inadequate coverage persists outside of Winnipeg, with four health care centres in the Prairie Mountain Health Region announcing temporary emergency room closures or service reductions in the coming months. [30] Doctors Manitoba anticipates that only about 40% of the province's rural and northern emergency rooms will be open 24/7 this summer due to a lack of physicians and nursing staff. [31] Leadership in 23 Northern Manitoba First Nations have declared a state of emergency in health care services, pointing to a critical shortage of staff and resources both in provincially operated health centres and federally run nursing stations. [32]

In an attempt to expand the health care workforce, the Government of Manitoba is spending $830,000 to add 30 new seats to the nurse training program at Red River College Polytechnic. This is part of a 2021 pledge to add 400 spaces, and brings the total nursing seat expansion to 289. [33]

Regional analysis

On an annual basis, employment increased in four of Manitoba's six economic regions. The South Central and North Central regions had the most substantial increase, gaining 4,400 jobs (8.1%). The Interlake and Parklands/Northern regions both recorded decreases of just over 2%. The Southeast region had the highest unemployment rate at 5.1%, down one percentage point from this time last year.

Manitoba Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region
Seasonally unadjusted data Employment Unemployment Rate
2nd Quarter 2022
('000)
2nd Quarter 2021
('000)
Yearly Variation
(%)
2nd Quarter 2022
(%)
2nd Quarter 2021
(%)
Yearly Variation
(% points)
Manitoba 675.1 657.6 2.7 4.5 7.2 -2.7
Economic Regions
Southeast 63.6 61.5 3.4 5.1 6.1 -1.0
South Central and North Central 59.0 54.6 8.1 3.3 7.3 -4.0
Southwest 56.8 56.5 0.5 3.6 5.8 -2.2
Winnipeg 419.6 407.4 3.0 4.7 7.8 -3.1
Interlake 45.0 46.1 -2.4 4.9 5.7 -0.8
Parklands and Northern 31.0 31.7 -2.2 3.7 5.1 -1.4

* Totals may not add due to rounding
Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey – Table 14-10-0387, formerly CANSIM 282-0122


Employment in Winnipeg increased by 3.0% year-over-year following jumps of 5.2% and 5.5% in the previous two quarters – a good sign for the city's economic recovery. However, a report released earlier this year highlighted a disparity between neighbourhoods, with employment lagging in central and lower income areas. [34] The planned redevelopment of the former Hudson's Bay building could create employment for the Downtown, including the city's Indigenous community. The City of Winnipeg will be offering $9.7 million in property tax rebates to the Southern Chiefs Organization, which plans to convert the six-storey heritage building into a mixed-use space called Wehwehneh Bahgahkinahgohn. The project will include 300 housing units, two restaurants, a museum and art gallery, as well as health and child care centres. [35]

In another landmark development for the Winnipeg economic region, the formation of the largest urban reserve in Canada is in progress at the former Kapyong Barracks. The City of Winnipeg has reached an agreement with Treaty One Development Corporation and Canada Lands Company to provide municipal services to Naawi-Oodena, and construction could begin as early as this August. It could take 10-15 years to complete the development, which will include high and low-density residential areas as well as commercial space. [36] Meanwhile, the Winnipeg Indigenous Executive Circle has released a 10-year investment plan highlighting needs for government spending on Indigenous economic development in Winnipeg. The coalition of 32 Indigenous-led organizations has flagged the construction of housing units and a new hospital as priority items in the $620 million proposal. [37]

While the South Central and North Central regions added 4,400 jobs (8.1%) on an annual basis this quarter, the Pembina Valley is grappling with labour shortages across a variety of industries. The Government of Manitoba is granting $516,000 to the non-profit Regional Connections Inc., which provides settlement services to newcomers in the area. The organization will use the funds to offer employment assistance, skills training, and English language classes to nearly 400 job seekers in hopes of filling some of the labour market gaps in the region. [38]

The Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre (CFDC) in Morden has two significant projects in the planning stages. The CFDC will resume fossil dig tours next year after a pandemic hiatus, and has received funding for a new building to host visitors and store equipment. The organization also plans to begin construction on a new museum facility in about two years. The 20,000 sq. ft. building could cost $15-20 million, though the exact budget is difficult to predict with rising materials and fuel costs. [39]

Manitoba Quarterly Employment Growth by Economic Region, Q2-2021 to Q2-2022
Manitoba quarterly employment growth by economic reqion. The data table for this graph is located below

Seasonally unadjusted data

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey Table 14-10-0293

Show data table: Manitoba Quarterly Employment Growth by Economic Region

South Central and North Central 8.1%
Southeast 3.4%
Winnipeg 3.0%
Southwest 0.5%
Parklands and Northern -2.2%
Interlake -2.4%

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Directorate, Service Canada, Manitoba.
For further information, please contact the LMI team.
For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website.

Footnotes

  1. Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0288-01. Employment by class of worker, monthly, seasonally adjusted and unadjusted, last 5 months. Accessed July 8, 2022.

  2. Canadian Federation of Independent Business. Small Business Recovery Dashboard. Retrieved July 8, 2022.

  3. Winnipeg Free Press (June 26, 2022). Little relief on Manitoba horizon as inflation pressure mounts.

  4. Statistics Canada (June 9, 2022). Impacts of rising prices on Canadians.

  5. Statistics Canada (December 3, 2021). Production of principal field crops, November 2021.

  6. CBC Manitoba (June 2, 2022). Thousands of flood-damaged sites need repairs in Manitoba, tab already tens of millions and growing.

  7. CTV News Winnipeg (May 25, 2022). Rising input prices present challenges for Manitoba farmers.

  8. Discover Westman (June 24, 2022). Government of Canada announces interest relief for farmers.

  9. Assiniboine Community College (December 15, 2021). Manitoba's Ag College works to build new, leading-edge agricultural training centre.

  10. Discover Westman (June 24, 2022). Innovation Centre receives million dollar donation.

  11. Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey, ESDC custom table.

  12. Government of Manitoba (June 14, 2022). Manitoba Government Dedicating $10 Million to Mining Industry.

  13. The Flin Flon Reminder (June 22, 2022). Hudbay ends active production at 777 mine, closure efforts underway for Flin Flon operations.

  14. Flin Flon Online (June 22, 2022). An Exploration Project Has Expanded Near Snow Lake.

  15. Thompson Citizen (June 2, 2022). Nickel demand, drilling program are good signs: Vale boss.

  16. Government of Manitoba (June 14, 2022). Manitoba Government Paving the Way for Manitoba's First Potash Development.

  17. Government of Manitoba (June 20, 2022). Manitoba Government's $4.5-Million Investment Opens State-of-the-Art Welding Shop at Manitoba Institute of Trades and Technology.

  18. Winnipeg Free Press (June 3, 2022). State-of-the-art, union-funded technical school aims to supply much-needed skilled tradespeople.

  19. The Globe and Mail (May 30, 2022). Ottawa announces $247-million to create 25,000 apprenticeship positions across Canada.

  20. Winnipeg Free Press (June 24, 2022). CN Rail investing $160 million in its Manitoba infrastructure.

  21. City of Winnipeg (June 1, 2022). June 1, 2022 - Media releases - City of Winnipeg.

  22. Government of Manitoba (June 10, 2022). Manitoba Government Invests $36 Million in Burntwood River Bridge Rehabilitation.

  23. Manitoba Chambers of Commerce (May 16, 2022). Tourism & Hospitality: Restoring Manitoba's Hardest-Hit Sector.

  24. Winnipeg Free Press (July 5, 2022). Manitoba hoteliers launch campaign to seek staff.

  25. Government of Canada (June 10, 2022). Minister Vandal announces major support for Manitoba's tourism comeback.

  26. Global News (June 30, 2022). Winnipeg summer festivals making a comeback after two-year hiatus.

  27. Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0325-01. Job vacancies, payroll employees, job vacancy rate, and average offered hourly wage by provinces and territories, quarterly, unadjusted for seasonality. Retrieved July 8, 2022.

  28. Winnipeg Free Press (June 13, 2022). Critical incident only matter of time at HSC, say ER nurses.

  29. Winnipeg Free Press (July 4, 2022). Staff shortage continues to diminish HSC ER.

  30. CBC News (July 1, 2022). Prairie Mountain Health region suspending, scaling back some ER services this summer.

  31. CBC News (June 24, 2022). 'At the breaking point': Doctors call staff shortages in rural, northern Manitoba a crisis.

  32. Thompson Citizen (May 30, 2022). Northern First Nations health care in a state of emergency.

  33. Government of Manitoba (June 8, 2022). Manitoba Government Invests More than $800,000 to Add 30 New Training Seats in Red River College Polytechnic's Nursing Program.

  34. CBC News (March 10, 2022). Job recovery since COVID-19 slower in core, lower-income Winnipeg neighbourhoods: city report.

  35. CBC News (June 9, 2022). Winnipeg poised to offer $10M worth of tax breaks to Bay redevelopment.

  36. CBC News (June 15, 2022). Construction on largest urban reserve in Canada could begin in Winnipeg this August.

  37. CBC News (June 29, 2022). Indigenous-led Winnipeg organizations' $620M investment plan proposes new hospital, housing.

  38. Government of Manitoba (June 23, 2022). Manitoba Government Providing More Than $516,000 to Help Address Workforce Shortage in the Pembina Valley.

  39. Pembina Valley Online (June 20, 2022). Two big projects on the horizon for Morden's Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre.

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