Educational Services (NAICS 61): Ontario, 2023-2025


HIGHLIGHTS


  • There were 565,700 people employed in the educational services sector in Ontario, comprising 7.4% of Ontario’s total workforce in 2022.
  • Employment in Ontario’s education sector increased by 3.6% in 2022.
  • Funding and labour issues in the education sector will continue to impact the outlook in this industry.
  • The province’s educational services sector produced $44.5 billion in gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, representing 5.7% of Ontario’s total GDP.

ABOUT THE SECTOR


Composition and importance of the sector

The educational services sector is comprised of four key sub-industries: elementary and secondary schools; universities; community colleges & C.E.G.E.P.s; and other schools.

In Ontario, this sector employed 565,700 people in 2022. This made up 7.4% of the province’s total workforce and these workers accounted for over one-third (38.2%) of employment in the educational services sector across the country.

The sector in Ontario produced $44.5 billion in GDP in 2022, contributing 5.7% to the province’s total GDP.

Graph 1. Employment Share by Subsector

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

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Employment Share by Subsector

Subsector
Employment Share
Primary and Secondary
60.7%
University
18.8%
Other Schools and Educational Support
11.7%
Post-Secondary
8.7%

Geographical distribution of employment

Across the province, the economic region (ER) with the highest proportion of Ontario’s workers in the educational services sector as of 2022 was the Toronto ER, with 44.4% of employment. This is due to the high population density in the ER, as well as the area being home to a number of post-secondary institutions.

Workers in the sector were over-represented in several ERs, including Kingston-Pembroke ER, where 9.9% of total employment was in educational services, 8.8% for Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie ER and 8.6% for London ER. In comparison, this industry made up 7.0% of overall employment in the province.

Table 1. Employment by Economic Region

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

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Employment by Economic Region

Economic Region
Employed 2022
Sector Share (%)
Ottawa
53,600
9.5%
Kingston-Pembroke
23,000
4.1%
Muskoka-Kawarthas
14,900
2.6%
Toronto
251,400
44.4%
Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie
70,400
12.4%
Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula
59,100
10.4%
London
33,500
5.9%
Windsor-Sarnia
22,400
4.0%
Stratford-Bruce Peninsula
7,900
1.4%
Northeast
21,400
3.8%
Northwest
8,100
1.4%


WORKFORCE


Workforce characteristics

  • Women accounted for more than two-thirds (68.7%) of Ontario’s educational services workforce in 2022, compared to 47.3% for all industries.
  • Only 5.0% of workers in this industry were self-employed in 2022, compared to 14.2% for all industries.
  • More than one-fifth (21.8%) of employees in the sector worked part-time in 2022, compared to 17.6% of the overall workforce in the province.
  • The industry also had a greater share working in temporary roles (21.3%) in 2022, compared to Ontario as a whole (9.9%).
  • In 2022, the average hourly wage rate in Ontario’s educational services sector was $39.37, above the provincial average of $32.94.

Table 2. Top 5 Occupations

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

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Employment by National Occupational Classification

National Occupational Classification
Employed 2022
Sector Share (%)
4030 Secondary and Elementary School Teachers and Educational Counsellors, n.e.c.
103,700
18.3%
4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers
72,500
12.8%
4413 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants
39,300
6.9%
4021 College and other vocational instructors
38,800
6.9%
4031 Secondary school teachers
35,600
6.3%


RECENT HISTORY


Elementary and secondary schools: For the 2021-2022 and 2022-2023 academic years, the Government of Ontario allocated public school boards funding through the COVID-19 Learning Recovery Fund, aimed at learning recovery efforts. This funding was not renewed for the 2023-2024 school year, resulting in a loss of staff positions for reference, the Toronto District School Board lost over 400 positions as a result of the expired funding.

Recently, concerns have been raised about province’s lack of funding for public school boards. While inflation has risen 17.3% since 2018, funding for schools only increased by 6.8%. Staffing issues have been an ongoing challenge faced by public school boards across the province, and even more so in Northern Ontario. To help remedy the shortage of teachers, the Ontario College of Teachers issued temporary certificates as an emergency measure for the school years between 2020-2021 and 2022-2023. These time-limited licences enabled eligible teacher candidates in the province to be hired on daily occasional rosters and for short-term teaching contracts prior to graduating from their education programs. As of May 2022, more than 2,000 temporary certificates were issued.

Universities and colleges: Over the last decade, postsecondary enrolment in Ontario had been steadily increasing, largely due to the rise in institutions welcoming international students. Between the 2010-2011 and 2018-2019 academic years, prior to COVID-19, enrolment for Canadian students in the province rose 3.5% at universities and fell 6.7% at colleges. In comparison, international student enrolment more than doubled at universites (+131.0%) and grew more than four times at colleges (+307.2%) over the same period. Due to funding shortfalls faced by postsecondary institutions, admission of international students is a financial incentive, given that they pay much higher tuition fees than Canadian students.

Despite COVID-19-related disruptions impacting the postsecondary experience, postsecondary enrolment exceeded pre-pandemic levels according to the latest data available. Between the 2019-2020 and 2021-2022 academic years, enrolment grew by 6.5% at universities and 1.8% at colleges. Notably, enrolment for international students rose 33.5% and 38.0% respectively, compared to a 1.8% increase in domestic students at universities and a 11.2% decline at colleges.

Graph 2. Sector Employment, Sector GDP, K-12 Enrolment and Postsecondary Enrolment*

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

Statistics Canada, Gross Domestic Product by Industry - Provincial and Territorial (Annual)

Government of Ontario, Ontario Data Catalogue

Government of Ontario, Ministry of Education

*Data are expressed as index where year 2012 = 100%

The year 2012 corresponds with the 2012-13 academic year postsecondary data for 2022-23 (2022) were not yet available.

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Employment and Capital Expenditure by Year

Year
Sector Employment
Sector GDP
K-12 Enrolment
Postsecondary Enrolment**
2012
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2013
103.0
101.5
99.2
103.1
2014
105.7
103.4
98.6
105.0
2015
110.1
104.0
98.1
107.8
2016
106.0
104.8
98.8
109.8
2017
104.8
106.5
99.5
114.6
2018
110.8
110.3
100.5
119.2
2019
116.0
111.8
101.2
121.3
2020
110.6
104.8
99.7
122.2
2021
117.2
111.2
99.9
124.4
2022
121.3
115.8
99.7
n/a


EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOKS


Over the 2023-2025 forecast period, the educational services sector in Ontario is expected to see modest employment growth. Population growth and demand for postsecondary education and training will continue to drive growth in the industry. However, labour availability may temper growth to an extent.

According to the Ontario College of Teachers, the supply of teachers in the province has not kept pace with the demand for new teachers for several years. The current shortage was attributed to:

  • Fewer new teachers certified per year since 2015 in Ontario,
  • Increased annual retirements,
  • Pandemic disruptions which caused teachers to leave the profession on a temporary or permanent basis, and
  • Student enrolment growth outpacing teacher availability in certain regions.

Other educational support roles in Ontario have also faced persistent labour shortages. In particular, school boards across the province have struggled to fill job vacancies for educational assistants, who primarily work with students with special needs. Common reasons for this include the increasingly complex and changing scope of its job requirements, poor compensation, and a lack of resources to support their roles.

According to the Canadian Occupational Projection System, approximately 71% of the projected employment growth across the country between 2022 and 2031 is expected to be in occupations requiring postsecondary education, or be in management. This indicates that even though university and college fees have been climbing, demand for enrolment will likely still be high. Canadian postsecondary enrolment levels are projected to increase by 11.2% between 2022 and 2031.

Table 3. Employment Change in Educational Services: August 2019 vs. August 2023

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

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Employment Change in Ontario Regions

Region
Employment Change
Ontario
↑ (+16,800; +13.5%)
Ottawa
Kingston-Pembroke
Muskoka-Kawarthas
Toronto
Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie
Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula
London
Windsor-Sarnia
Stratford-Bruce Peninsula
Northeast
Northwest

Key trends affecting the outlook of the educational services sector

  • General population growth
  • Funding and labour issues faced by public school boards
  • Demand for postsecondary education and training to prepare current and future workers for the labour market

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Note: In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market and Socio-economic Information Directorate, Service Canada, Ontario Region

For further information, please contact LMSID at: Contact: Labour Market Information - Canada.ca (services.gc.ca)


APPENDIX


Table A1. Geographical Distribution of the Sector

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

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Share of Employment in Ontario by Region

Share of Employment in Ontario (%)
Sector Share of Employment (%)
2020-2022 Average
2020-2022 Average
Ontario
100.0%
7.4%
Ottawa
9.9%
7.3%
Kingston-Pembroke
3.9%
9.7%
Muskoka-Kawarthas
2.6%
7.8%
Toronto
44.6%
6.8%
Kitchener-Waterloo-Barrie
12.4%
8.8%
Hamilton-Niagara Peninsula
10.4%
7.6%
London
5.7%
8.4%
Windsor-Sarnia
3.7%
6.8%
Stratford-Bruce Peninsula
1.3%
4.5%
Northeast
3.9%
8.5%
Northwest
1.6%
9.0%

Table A2. Characteristics of Employed Persons

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Custom Table

*Average annual growth rate for last ten years available data

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Sector Employment Statistics

Educational Services All Sectors
Employment, 2022 Share of Total (%) AAGR (%)* Share of Total (%) AAGR (%)*
Employment 565,700 100.0% 2.0% 100.0% 1.5%
Male 176,900 31.3% 1.6% 52.7% 1.6%
Female 388,800 68.7% 2.3% 47.3% 1.3%
15-24 years old 48,700 8.6% 2.6% 13.2% 1.3%
25-54 years old 407,700 72.1% 2.0% 65.0% 1.0%
55 years and older 109,200 19.3% 2.3% 21.8% 3.2%
Worked full-time 442,300 78.2% 2.3% 82.4% 1.6%
Worked part-time 123,400 21.8% 1.1% 17.6% 0.7%
Self-employed 28,400 5.0% 3.7% 14.2% 0.6%
Employees 537,300 95.0% 2.0% 85.8% 1.6%
Permanent job 410,200 72.5% 2.0% 76.6% 1.8%
Temporary job 120,400 21.3% 1.8% 9.9% 0.4%
Less than high school 10,200 1.8% 0.9% 6.4% -1.9%
High school graduate 58,100 10.3% -0.1% 22.5% -0.4%
Postsecondary cert. or diploma 126,300 22.3% 3.2% 32.2% 1.1%
University degree 369,900 65.4% 2.3% 38.9% 4.1%

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